senescence.info logo

Bibliography

Listed below are all the roughly 1,000 references cited in senescence.info. I often cite my own academic publications for the simple reason that I am more familiar with them, though I always aim to provide a broad overview of the literature on any given topic. For the sake of brevity I do not cite every single paper related to a given topic, and I frequently cite review papers and books--yet I try to cite the most important primary research papers. Lastly, please see my list of links and books for additional sources of information.


Abele, D., Strahl, J., Brey, T., and Philipp, E. E. (2008). "Imperceptible senescence: ageing in the ocean quahog Arctica islandica." Free Radic Res 42(5):474-480. PubMed

Ackermann, M., Stearns, S. C., and Jenal, U. (2003). "Senescence in a bacterium with asymmetric division." Science 300(5627):1920. PubMed

Acosta, J. C., O'Loghlen, A., Banito, A., Guijarro, M. V., Augert, A., Raguz, S., Fumagalli, M., Da Costa, M., Brown, C., Popov, N., et al. (2008). "Chemokine signaling via the CXCR2 receptor reinforces senescence." Cell 133(6):1006-1018. PubMed

Adelman, R. C. (1998). "The Alzheimerization of aging: a brief update." Exp Gerontol 33(1-2):155-157. PubMed

Ahmed, S., and Hodgkin, J. (2000). "MRT-2 checkpoint protein is required for germline immortality and telomere replication in C. elegans." Nature 403(6766):159-164. PubMed

Ahmed, S., Passos, J. F., Birket, M. J., Beckmann, T., Brings, S., Peters, H., Birch-Machin, M. A., von Zglinicki, T., and Saretzki, G. (2008). "Telomerase does not counteract telomere shortening but protects mitochondrial function under oxidative stress." J Cell Sci 121(Pt 7):1046-1053. PubMed

Aikata, H., Takaishi, H., Kawakami, Y., Takahashi, S., Kitamoto, M., Nakanishi, T., Nakamura, Y., Shimamoto, F., Kajiyama, G., and Ide, T. (2000). "Telomere reduction in human liver tissues with age and chronic inflammation." Exp Cell Res 256(2):578-582. PubMed

Alcendor, R. R., Gao, S., Zhai, P., Zablocki, D., Holle, E., Yu, X., Tian, B., Wagner, T., Vatner, S. F., and Sadoshima, J. (2007). "Sirt1 regulates aging and resistance to oxidative stress in the heart." Circ Res 100(10):1512-1521. PubMed

Alcorta, D. A., Xiong, Y., Phelps, D., Hannon, G., Beach, D., and Barrett, J. C. (1996). "Involvement of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 (INK4a) in replicative senescence of normal human fibroblasts." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(24):13742-13747. PubMed

Aledo, J. C., Li, Y., de Magalhaes, J. P., Ruiz-Camacho, M., and Perez-Claros, J. A. (2011). "Mitochondrially encoded methionine is inversely related to longevity in mammals." Aging Cell 10(2):198-207. PubMed

Allard, M., Lebre, V., Robine, J., and Calment, J. (1998). Jeanne Calment: From Van Gogh's time to ours: 122 extraordinary years. W.H. Freeman & Co., New York.

Allman, J., McLaughlin, T., and Hakeem, A. (1993). "Brain weight and life-span in primate species." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(1):118-122. PubMed

Allsopp, R. C., Vaziri, H., Patterson, C., Goldstein, S., Younglai, E. V., Futcher, A. B., Greider, C. W., and Harley, C. B. (1992). "Telomere length predicts replicative capacity of human fibroblasts." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(21):10114-10118. PubMed

Altman, J., and Das, G. D. (1965). "Autoradiographic and histological evidence of postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in rats." J Comp Neurol 124(3):319-335. PubMed

Alvarez-Buylla, A., and Garcia-Verdugo, J. M. (2002). "Neurogenesis in adult subventricular zone." J Neurosci 22(3):629-634. PubMed

Alvarez-Erviti, L., Seow, Y., Yin, H., Betts, C., Lakhal, S., and Wood, M. J. (2011). "Delivery of siRNA to the mouse brain by systemic injection of targeted exosomes." Nat Biotechnol 29(4):341-345. PubMed

Ames, B. N., Cathcart, R., Schwiers, E., and Hochstein, P. (1981). "Uric acid provides an antioxidant defense in humans against oxidant- and radical-caused aging and cancer: a hypothesis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 78(11):6858-6862. PubMed

Ames, B. N., Shigenaga, M. K., and Hagen, T. M. (1993). "Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(17):7915-7922. PubMed

Ameur, A., Stewart, J. B., Freyer, C., Hagstrom, E., Ingman, M., Larsson, N. G., and Gyllensten, U. (2011). "Ultra-deep sequencing of mouse mitochondrial DNA: mutational patterns and their origins." PLoS Genet 7(3):e1002028. PubMed

Andziak, B., O'Connor T, P., and Buffenstein, R. (2005). "Antioxidants do not explain the disparate longevity between mice and the longest-living rodent, the naked mole-rat." Mech Ageing Dev 126(11):1206-1212. PubMed

Anisimov, V. N., Zavarzina, N. Y., Zabezhinski, M. A., Popovich, I. G., Zimina, O. A., Shtylick, A. V., Arutjunyan, A. V., Oparina, T. I., Prokopenko, V. M., Mikhalski, A. I., et al. (2001). "Melatonin increases both life span and tumor incidence in female CBA mice." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56(7):B311-323. PubMed

Anisimov, V. N., Berstein, L. M., Egormin, P. A., Piskunova, T. S., Popovich, I. G., Zabezhinski, M. A., Kovalenko, I. G., Poroshina, T. E., Semenchenko, A. V., Provinciali, M., et al. (2005). "Effect of metformin on life span and on the development of spontaneous mammary tumors in HER-2/neu transgenic mice." Exp Gerontol 40(8-9):685-693. PubMed

Antonawich, F. J., Federoff, H. J., and Davis, J. N. (1999). "BCL-2 transduction, using a herpes simplex virus amplicon, protects hippocampal neurons from transient global ischemia." Exp Neurol 156(1):130-137. PubMed

Apfeld, J., and Kenyon, C. (1998). "Cell nonautonomy of C. elegans daf-2 function in the regulation of diapause and life span." Cell 95(2):199-210. PubMed

Arantes-Oliveira, N., Apfeld, J., Dillin, A., and Kenyon, C. (2002). "Regulation of life-span by germ-line stem cells in Caenorhabditis elegans." Science 295(5554):502-505. PubMed

Arboleda, G., Ramirez, N., and Arboleda, H. (2007). "The neonatal progeroid syndrome (Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch): a model for the study of human aging?" Exp Gerontol 42(10):939-943. PubMed

Arking, D. E., Krebsova, A., Macek, M., Sr., Macek, M., Jr., Arking, A., Mian, I. S., Fried, L., Hamosh, A., Dey, S., McIntosh, I., et al. (2002). "Association of human aging with a functional variant of klotho." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(2):856-861. PubMed

Arnold, J. M., and Carlson, B. A. (1986). "Living Nautilus embryos: Preliminary observations." Science 232:73-76.

Artandi, S. E., Alson, S., Tietze, M. K., Sharpless, N. E., Ye, S., Greenberg, R. A., Castrillon, D. H., Horner, J. W., Weiler, S. R., Carrasco, R. D., et al. (2002). "Constitutive telomerase expression promotes mammary carcinomas in aging mice." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(12):8191-8196. PubMed

Atadja, P., Wong, H., Garkavtsev, I., Veillette, C., and Riabowol, K. (1995). "Increased activity of p53 in senescing fibroblasts." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(18):8348-8352. PubMed

Atzmon, G., Schechter, C., Greiner, W., Davidson, D., Rennert, G., and Barzilai, N. (2004). "Clinical phenotype of families with longevity." J Am Geriatr Soc 52(2):274-277. PubMed

Atzmon, G., Cho, M., Cawthon, R. M., Budagov, T., Katz, M., Yang, X., Siegel, G., Bergman, A., Huffman, D. M., Schechter, C. B., et al. (2010). "Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Genetic variation in human telomerase is associated with telomere length in Ashkenazi centenarians." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 Suppl 1:1710-1717. PubMed

Austad, S. N. (1988). "The adaptable opossum." Sci Am (Feb.):98-104.

Austad, S. N. (1989). "Life extension by dietary restriction in the bowl and doily spider, Frontinella pyramitela." Exp Gerontol 24(1):83-92. PubMed

Austad, S. N., and Fischer, K. E. (1991). "Mammalian aging, metabolism, and ecology: evidence from the bats and marsupials." J Gerontol 46(2):B47-53. PubMed

Austad, S. N., and Fischer, K. E. (1992). "Primate longevity: Its place in the mammalian scheme." Am J Primatol 28(4):251-261.

Austad, S. N. (1997a). Why We Age: What Science Is Discovering about the Body's Journey through Life. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Austad, S. N. (1997b). "Comparative aging and life histories in mammals." Exp Gerontol 32(1-2):23-38. PubMed

Austad, S. N. (1997c). "Small nonhuman primates as potential models of human aging." Ilar J 38(3):142-147. PubMed

Austad, S. N. (2001). "An experimental paradigm for the study of slowly aging organisms." Exp Gerontol 36(4-6):599-605. PubMed

Austad, S. N. (2004). "Is aging programed?" Aging Cell 3(5):249-251. PubMed

Austad, S. N. (2005). "Diverse aging rates in metazoans: targets for functional genomics." Mech Ageing Dev 126(1):43-49. PubMed

Austad, S. N. (2006). "Why women live longer than men: sex differences in longevity." Gend Med 3(2):79-92. PubMed

Avraam, D., de Magalhaes, J. P., and Vasiev, B. (2013). "A mathematical model of mortality dynamics across the lifespan combining heterogeneity and stochastic effects." Exp Gerontol 48(8):801-811. PubMed

Ayyadevara, S., Alla, R., Thaden, J. J., and Shmookler Reis, R. J. (2008). "Remarkable longevity and stress resistance of nematode PI3K-null mutants." Aging Cell 7(1):13-22. PubMed

Baker, D. J., Wijshake, T., Tchkonia, T., LeBrasseur, N. K., Childs, B. G., van de Sluis, B., Kirkland, J. L., and van Deursen, J. M. (2011). "Clearance of p16Ink4a-positive senescent cells delays ageing-associated disorders." Nature 479(7372):232-236. PubMed

Baker, D. J., Dawlaty, M. M., Wijshake, T., Jeganathan, K. B., Malureanu, L., van Ree, J. H., Crespo-Diaz, R., Reyes, S., Seaburg, L., Shapiro, V., et al. (2013). "Increased expression of BubR1 protects against aneuploidy and cancer and extends healthy lifespan." Nat Cell Biol 15(1):96-102. PubMed

Balin, A. K. E. (1994). Practical Handbook of Biologic Age Determination. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Barja, G., and Herrero, A. (2000). "Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA is inversely related to maximum life span in the heart and brain of mammals." Faseb J 14(2):312-318. PubMed

Barja, G. (2002). "Endogenous oxidative stress: relationship to aging, longevity and caloric restriction." Ageing Res Rev 1(3):397-411. PubMed

Barker, M. G., and Walmsley, R. M. (1999). "Replicative ageing in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe." Yeast 15(14):1511-1518. PubMed

Bartke, A., Coschigano, K., Kopchick, J., Chandrashekar, V., Mattison, J., Kinney, B., and Hauck, S. (2001a). "Genes that prolong life: relationships of growth hormone and growth to aging and life span." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56(8):B340-349. PubMed

Bartke, A., Wright, J. C., Mattison, J. A., Ingram, D. K., Miller, R. A., and Roth, G. S. (2001b). "Extending the lifespan of long-lived mice." Nature 414(6862):412. PubMed

Bartke, A. (2003). "Can growth hormone (GH) accelerate aging? Evidence from GH-transgenic mice." Neuroendocrinology 78(4):210-216. PubMed

Bartke, A. (2005). "Minireview: role of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor system in mammalian aging." Endocrinology 146(9):3718-3723. PubMed

Barton-Davis, E. R., Shoturma, D. I., Musaro, A., Rosenthal, N., and Sweeney, H. L. (1998). "Viral mediated expression of insulin-like growth factor I blocks the aging-related loss of skeletal muscle function." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(26):15603-15607. PubMed

Bass, T. M., Weinkove, D., Houthoofd, K., Gems, D., and Partridge, L. (2007). "Effects of resveratrol on lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans." Mech Ageing Dev 128(10):546-552. PubMed

Bassham, S., Beam, A., and Shampay, J. (1998). "Telomere variation in Xenopus laevis." Mol Cell Biol 18(1):269-275. PubMed

Bastianetto, S., and Quirion, R. (2002). "Natural extracts as possible protective agents of brain aging." Neurobiol Aging 23(5):891-897. PubMed

Bauer, J. H., Poon, P. C., Glatt-Deeley, H., Abrams, J. M., and Helfand, S. L. (2005). "Neuronal expression of p53 dominant-negative proteins in adult Drosophila melanogaster extends life span." Curr Biol 15(22):2063-2068. PubMed

Baur, J. A., Pearson, K. J., Price, N. L., Jamieson, H. A., Lerin, C., Kalra, A., Prabhu, V. V., Allard, J. S., Lopez-Lluch, G., Lewis, K., et al. (2006). "Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet." Nature 444(7117):337-342. PubMed

Baur, J. A., and Sinclair, D. A. (2006). "Therapeutic potential of resveratrol: the in vivo evidence." Nat Rev Drug Discov 5(6):493-506. PubMed

Bayne, A. C., Mockett, R. J., Orr, W. C., and Sohal, R. S. (2005). "Enhanced catabolism of mitochondrial superoxide/hydrogen peroxide and aging in transgenic Drosophila." Biochem J 391(Pt 2):277-284. PubMed

Baynes, J. W. (2000). "From life to death--the struggle between chemistry and biology during aging: the Maillard reaction as an amplifier of genomic damage." Biogerontology 1(3):235-246. PubMed

Bayreuther, K., Rodemann, H. P., Hommel, R., Dittmann, K., Albiez, M., and Francz, P. I. (1988). "Human skin fibroblasts in vitro differentiate along a terminal cell lineage." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85(14):5112-5116. PubMed

Beckman, K. B., and Ames, B. N. (1998). "The free radical theory of aging matures." Physiol Rev 78(2):547-581. PubMed

Bell, G. (1988). Sex and Death in Protozoa. The History of an Obsession. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Benard, C., and Hekimi, S. (2002). "Long-lived mutants, the rate of aging, telomeres and the germline in Caenorhabditis elegans." Mech Ageing Dev 123(8):869-880. PubMed

Berardi, P., Meyyappan, M., and Riabowol, K. T. (2003). "A novel transcriptional inhibitory element differentially regulates the cyclin D1 gene in senescent cells." J Biol Chem 278(9):7510-7519. PubMed

Bergmann, O., Bhardwaj, R. D., Bernard, S., Zdunek, S., Barnabe-Heider, F., Walsh, S., Zupicich, J., Alkass, K., Buchholz, B. A., Druid, H., et al. (2009). "Evidence for cardiomyocyte renewal in humans." Science 324(5923):98-102. PubMed

Bergquist, D. C., Williams, F. M., and Fisher, C. R. (2000). "Longevity record for deep-sea invertebrate." Nature 403(6769):499-500. PubMed

Bernardes de Jesus, B., Vera, E., Schneeberger, K., Tejera, A. M., Ayuso, E., Bosch, F., and Blasco, M. A. (2012). "Telomerase gene therapy in adult and old mice delays aging and increases longevity without increasing cancer." EMBO Mol Med 4(8):691-704. PubMed

Berner, Y. N., and Stern, F. (2004). "Energy restriction controls aging through neuroendocrine signal transduction." Ageing Res Rev 3(2):189-198. PubMed

Bersell, K., Arab, S., Haring, B., and Kuhn, B. (2009). "Neuregulin1/ErbB4 signaling induces cardiomyocyte proliferation and repair of heart injury." Cell 138(2):257-270. PubMed

Berzlanovich, A. M., Keil, W., Waldhoer, T., Sim, E., Fasching, P., and Fazeny-Dorner, B. (2005). "Do centenarians die healthy? An autopsy study." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60(7):862-865. PubMed

Besson, A., Salemi, S., Gallati, S., Jenal, A., Horn, R., Mullis, P. S., and Mullis, P. E. (2003). "Reduced longevity in untreated patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88(8):3664-3667. PubMed

Bidder, G. P. (1932). "Senescence." Brit Med J 2:583-585.

Birney, E., Stamatoyannopoulos, J. A., Dutta, A., Guigo, R., Gingeras, T. R., Margulies, E. H., Weng, Z., Snyder, M., Dermitzakis, E. T., Thurman, R. E., et al. (2007). "Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human genome by the ENCODE pilot project." Nature 447(7146):799-816. PubMed

Bishop, N. A., and Guarente, L. (2007). "Two neurons mediate diet-restriction-induced longevity in C. elegans." Nature 447(7144):545-549. PubMed

Bjelakovic, G., Nikolova, D., Gluud, L. L., Simonetti, R. G., and Gluud, C. (2007). "Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis." Jama 297(8):842-857. PubMed

Bjelakovic, G., Nikolova, D., Gluud, L. L., Simonetti, R. G., and Gluud, C. (2008). "Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases." Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD007176. PubMed

Bjorklund, A., and Lindvall, O. (2000). "Self-repair in the brain." Nature 405(6789):892-893, 895. PubMed

Blackburn, E. H. (2000). "Telomere states and cell fates." Nature 408(6808):53-56. PubMed

Blackman, M. R., Sorkin, J. D., Munzer, T., Bellantoni, M. F., Busby-Whitehead, J., Stevens, T. E., Jayme, J., O'Connor, K. G., Christmas, C., Tobin, J. D., et al. (2002). "Growth hormone and sex steroid administration in healthy aged women and men: a randomized controlled trial." Jama 288(18):2282-2292. PubMed

Blasco, M. A., Lee, H. W., Hande, M. P., Samper, E., Lansdorp, P. M., DePinho, R. A., and Greider, C. W. (1997). "Telomere shortening and tumor formation by mouse cells lacking telomerase RNA." Cell 91(1):25-34. PubMed

Blasco, M. A., and Hahn, W. C. (2003). "Evolving views of telomerase and cancer." Trends Cell Biol 13(6):289-294. PubMed

Blasco, M. A. (2005). "Telomeres and human disease: ageing, cancer and beyond." Nat Rev Genet 6(8):611-622. PubMed

Bodkin, N. L., Alexander, T. M., Ortmeyer, H. K., Johnson, E., and Hansen, B. C. (2003). "Mortality and morbidity in laboratory-maintained Rhesus monkeys and effects of long-term dietary restriction." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 58(3):212-219. PubMed

Bodnar, A. G., Ouellette, M., Frolkis, M., Holt, S. E., Chiu, C. P., Morin, G. B., Harley, C. B., Shay, J. W., Lichtsteiner, S., and Wright, W. E. (1998). "Extension of life-span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells." Science 279(5349):349-352. PubMed

Bohr, V. A., Brosh, R. M., Jr., von Kobbe, C., Opresko, P., and Karmakar, P. (2002). "Pathways defective in the human premature aging disease Werner syndrome." Biogerontology 3(1-2):89-94. PubMed

Bolli, R., Chugh, A. R., D'Amario, D., Loughran, J. H., Stoddard, M. F., Ikram, S., Beache, G. M., Wagner, S. G., Leri, A., Hosoda, T., et al. (2011). "Cardiac stem cells in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy (SCIPIO): initial results of a randomised phase 1 trial." Lancet 378(9806):1847-1857. PubMed

Bonafe, M., Barbieri, M., Marchegiani, F., Olivieri, F., Ragno, E., Giampieri, C., Mugianesi, E., Centurelli, M., Franceschi, C., and Paolisso, G. (2003). "Polymorphic variants of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor and phosphoinositide 3-kinase genes affect IGF-I plasma levels and human longevity: cues for an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of life span control." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88(7):3299-3304. PubMed

Bond, J., Haughton, M., Blaydes, J., Gire, V., Wynford-Thomas, D., and Wyllie, F. (1996). "Evidence that transcriptional activation by p53 plays a direct role in the induction of cellular senescence." Oncogene 13(10):2097-2104. PubMed

Bonelli, M. A., Alfieri, R. R., Petronini, P. G., Brigotti, M., Campanini, C., and Borghetti, A. F. (1999). "Attenuated expression of 70-kDa heat shock protein in WI-38 human fibroblasts during aging in vitro." Exp Cell Res 252(1):20-32. PubMed

Bonkowski, M. S., Rocha, J. S., Masternak, M. M., Al Regaiey, K. A., and Bartke, A. (2006). "Targeted disruption of growth hormone receptor interferes with the beneficial actions of calorie restriction." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(20):7901-7905. PubMed

Bons, N., Mestre, N., and Petter, A. (1992). "Senile plaques and neurofibrillary changes in the brain of an aged lemurian primate, Microcebus murinus." Neurobiol Aging 13(1):99-105. PubMed

Bowen, R. L., and Atwood, C. S. (2004). "Living and dying for sex. A theory of aging based on the modulation of cell cycle signaling by reproductive hormones." Gerontology 50(5):265-290. PubMed

Bowles, J. (2000). "Shattered: Medawar's test tubes and their enduring legacy of chaos." Med Hypotheses 54(2):326-339. PubMed

Brack, C., Lithgow, G., Osiewacz, H., and Toussaint, O. (2000). "EMBO WORKSHOP REPORT: Molecular and cellular gerontology Serpiano, Switzerland, September 18-22, 1999." Embo J 19(9):1929-1934. PubMed

Brakefield, P. M., Gems, D., Cowen, T., Christensen, K., Grubeck-Loebenstein, B., Keller, L., Oeppen, J., Rodriguez-Pena, A., Stazi, M. A., Tatar, M., et al. (2005). "What are the effects of maternal and pre-adult environments on ageing in humans, and are there lessons from animal models?" Mech Ageing Dev 126(3):431-438. PubMed

Breese, C. R., Ingram, R. L., and Sonntag, W. E. (1991). "Influence of age and long-term dietary restriction on plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 gene expression, and IGF-1 binding proteins." J Gerontol 46(5):B180-187. PubMed

Brocas, J., and Verzar, F. (1961). "The aging of Xenopus laevis, a South African frog." Gerontologia 5:228-240. PubMed

Brock, M. A., and Strehler, B. L. (1963). "Studies on the comparative physiology of aging. IV. Age and mortality of some marine Cnidaria in the laboratory." J Gerontol 18:23-28. PubMed

Brock, T. D. (1997). Biology of Microorganisms. Prentice Hall & IBD, New Jersey.

Brockes, J. P., Kumar, A., and Velloso, C. P. (2001). "Regeneration as an evolutionary variable." J Anat 199(Pt 1-2):3-11. PubMed

Bronikowski, A. M., Alberts, S. C., Altmann, J., Packer, C., Carey, K. D., and Tatar, M. (2002). "The aging baboon: comparative demography in a non-human primate." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(14):9591-9595. PubMed

Brown-Borg, H. M., Borg, K. E., Meliska, C. J., and Bartke, A. (1996). "Dwarf mice and the ageing process." Nature 384(6604):33. PubMed

Brown-Borg, H. M., Rakoczy, S. G., and Uthus, E. O. (2005). "Growth hormone alters methionine and glutathione metabolism in Ames dwarf mice." Mech Ageing Dev 126(3):389-398. PubMed

Brunet-Rossinni, A. K., and Austad, S. N. (2004). "Ageing studies on bats: a review." Biogerontology 5(4):211-222. PubMed

Brunk, U., Ericsson, J. L., Ponten, J., and Westermark, B. (1973). "Residual bodies and "aging" in cultured human glia cells. Effect of entrance into phase 3 and prolonged periods of confluence." Exp Eye Res 79(1):1-14. PubMed

Brunmark, A., Collins, V. P., Thaw, H., and Brunk, U. (1986). "Lipofuscin accumulation in cultured non-dividing cells as a function of time and oxygen tension." Scan Electron Microsc 1:189-192. PubMed

Bruunsgaard, H., Pedersen, M., and Pedersen, B. K. (2001). "Aging and proinflammatory cytokines." Curr Opin Hematol 8(3):131-136. PubMed

Bryan, T. M., Englezou, A., Gupta, J., Bacchetti, S., and Reddel, R. R. (1995). "Telomere elongation in immortal human cells without detectable telomerase activity." Embo J 14(17):4240-4248. PubMed

Buchkovich, K., Duffy, L. A., and Harlow, E. (1989). "The retinoblastoma protein is phosphorylated during specific phases of the cell cycle." Cell 58(6):1097-1105. PubMed

Buffenstein, R. (2005). "The naked mole-rat: a new long-living model for human aging research." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60(11):1369-1377. PubMed

Buffenstein, R. (2008). "Negligible senescence in the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat: insights from a successfully aging species." J Comp Physiol B 178(4):439-445. PubMed

Bukovsky, A., Caudle, M. R., Svetlikova, M., Wimalasena, J., Ayala, M. E., and Dominguez, R. (2005). "Oogenesis in adult mammals, including humans: a review." Endocrine 26(3):301-316. PubMed

Burck, U., Goebel, H. H., Kuhlendahl, H. D., Meier, C., and Goebel, K. M. (1981). "Neuromyopathy and vitamin E deficiency in man." Neuropediatrics 12(3):267-278. PubMed

Burd, C. E., Sorrentino, J. A., Clark, K. S., Darr, D. B., Krishnamurthy, J., Deal, A. M., Bardeesy, N., Castrillon, D. H., Beach, D. H., and Sharpless, N. E. (2013). "Monitoring tumorigenesis and senescence in vivo with a p16(INK4a)-luciferase model." Cell 152(1-2):340-351. PubMed

Burnett, C., Valentini, S., Cabreiro, F., Goss, M., Somogyvari, M., Piper, M. D., Hoddinott, M., Sutphin, G. L., Leko, V., McElwee, J. J., et al. (2011). "Absence of effects of Sir2 overexpression on lifespan in C. elegans and Drosophila." Nature 477(7365):482-485. PubMed

Burt, R. K., Loh, Y., Pearce, W., Beohar, N., Barr, W. G., Craig, R., Wen, Y., Rapp, J. A., and Kessler, J. (2008). "Clinical applications of blood-derived and marrow-derived stem cells for nonmalignant diseases." Jama 299(8):925-936. PubMed

Butler, R. N., Austad, S. N., Barzilai, N., Braun, A., Helfand, S., Larsen, P. L., McCormick, A. M., Perls, T. T., Shuldiner, A. R., Sprott, R. L., et al. (2003). "Longevity genes: from primitive organisms to humans." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 58(7):581-584. PubMed

Butler, R. N., Miller, R. A., Perry, D., Carnes, B. A., Williams, T. F., Cassel, C., Brody, J., Bernard, M. A., Partridge, L., Kirkwood, T., et al. (2008). "New model of health promotion and disease prevention for the 21st century." Bmj 337:a399. PubMed

Cailliet, G. M., Andrews, A. H., Burton, E. J., Watters, D. L., Kline, D. E., and Ferry-Graham, L. A. (2001). "Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep- dwellers live longer?" Exp Gerontol 36(4-6):739-764. PubMed

Calder, W. A. (1984). Size, Function, and Life History. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Campisi, J. (1999). "Replicative senescence and immortalization." In: The molecular basis of cell cycle and growth control, Stein, G. S., Baserga, A., Giordano, A. and Denhardt, D. T. (ed.).  Wiley-Liss, New York, 348-373.

Campisi, J. (2000). "Aging, chromatin, and food restriction--connecting the dots." Science 289(5487):2062-2063. PubMed

Campisi, J., Kim, S. H., Lim, C. S., and Rubio, M. (2001). "Cellular senescence, cancer and aging: the telomere connection." Exp Gerontol 36(10):1619-1637. PubMed

Campisi, J. (2005). "Senescent cells, tumor suppression, and organismal aging: good citizens, bad neighbors." Cell 120(4):513-522. PubMed

Campisi, J., and d'Adda di Fagagna, F. (2007). "Cellular senescence: when bad things happen to good cells." Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8(9):729-740. PubMed

Cao, L., Li, W., Kim, S., Brodie, S. G., and Deng, C. X. (2003). "Senescence, aging, and malignant transformation mediated by p53 in mice lacking the Brca1 full-length isoform." Genes Dev 17(2):201-213. PubMed

Caplan, A. L. (2005). "Death as an unnatural process. Why is it wrong to seek a cure for aging?" EMBO Rep 6 Spec No:S72-75. PubMed

Carlson, B. M. (2003). "Muscle regeneration in amphibians and mammals: passing the torch." Dev Dyn 226(2):167-181. PubMed

Carlson, M. E., Hsu, M., and Conboy, I. M. (2008). "Imbalance between pSmad3 and Notch induces CDK inhibitors in old muscle stem cells." Nature 454(7203):528-532. PubMed

Carney, J. P., Maser, R. S., Olivares, H., Davis, E. M., Le Beau, M., Yates, J. R., 3rd, Hays, L., Morgan, W. F., and Petrini, J. H. (1998). "The hMre11/hRad50 protein complex and Nijmegen breakage syndrome: linkage of double-strand break repair to the cellular DNA damage response." Cell 93(3):477-486. PubMed

Carroll, S. B. (2003). "Genetics and the making of Homo sapiens." Nature 422(6934):849-857. PubMed

Castro, P., Giri, D., Lamb, D., and Ittmann, M. (2003). "Cellular senescence in the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia." Prostate 55(1):30-38. PubMed

Caulin, A. F., and Maley, C. C. (2011). "Peto's Paradox: evolution's prescription for cancer prevention." Trends Ecol Evol 26(4):175-182. PubMed

Cavazzana-Calvo, M., Hacein-Bey, S., de Saint Basile, G., Gross, F., Yvon, E., Nusbaum, P., Selz, F., Hue, C., Certain, S., Casanova, J. L., et al. (2000). "Gene therapy of human severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-X1 disease." Science 288(5466):669-672. PubMed

Cawthon, R. M., Smith, K. R., O'Brien, E., Sivatchenko, A., and Kerber, R. A. (2003). "Association between telomere length in blood and mortality in people aged 60 years or older." Lancet 361(9355):393-395. PubMed

Celli, J., Duijf, P., Hamel, B. C., Bamshad, M., Kramer, B., Smits, A. P., Newbury-Ecob, R., Hennekam, R. C., Van Buggenhout, G., van Haeringen, A., et al. (1999). "Heterozygous germline mutations in the p53 homolog p63 are the cause of EEC syndrome." Cell 99(2):143-153. PubMed

Cenci, G., Ciapponi, L., and Gatti, M. (2005). "The mechanism of telomere protection: a comparison between Drosophila and humans." Chromosoma 114(3):135-145. PubMed

Cevenini, E., Bellavista, E., Tieri, P., Castellani, G., Lescai, F., Francesconi, M., Mishto, M., Santoro, A., Valensin, S., Salvioli, S., et al. (2010). "Systems biology and longevity: an emerging approach to identify innovative anti-aging targets and strategies." Curr Pharm Des 16(7):802-813. PubMed

Chai, Y., and Slavkin, H. C. (2003). "Prospects for tooth regeneration in the 21st century: a perspective." Microsc Res Tech 60(5):469-479. PubMed

Chan, A. W., Chong, K. Y., Martinovich, C., Simerly, C., and Schatten, G. (2001). "Transgenic monkeys produced by retroviral gene transfer into mature oocytes." Science 291(5502):309-312. PubMed

Charlesworth, B. (1993). Evolution in Age-Structured Populations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Charlesworth, B., and Hughes, K. A. (1996). "Age-specific inbreeding depression and components of genetic variance in relation to the evolution of senescence." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(12):6140-6145. PubMed

Charlesworth, B. (2000). "Fisher, Medawar, Hamilton and the evolution of aging." Genetics 156(3):927-931. PubMed

Charnov, E. L. (1993). Life History Invariants: Some Explorations of Symmetry in Evolutionary Ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Chen, J. J., and Yu, B. P. (1994). "Alterations in mitochondrial membrane fluidity by lipid peroxidation products." Free Radical Biol Med 17(5):411-418. PubMed

Chen, Q., Fischer, A., Reagan, J. D., Yan, L. J., and Ames, B. N. (1995). "Oxidative DNA damage and senescence of human diploid fibroblast cells." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(10):4337-4341. PubMed

Chen, H. J., Liang, C. L., Lu, K., Lin, J. W., and Cho, C. L. (2000). "Implication of telomerase activity and alternations of telomere length in the histologic characteristics of intracranial meningiomas." Cancer 89(10):2092-2098. PubMed

Chen, L., Lee, L., Kudlow, B. A., Dos Santos, H. G., Sletvold, O., Shafeghati, Y., Botha, E. G., Garg, A., Hanson, N. B., Martin, G. M., et al. (2003). "LMNA mutations in atypical Werner's syndrome." Lancet 362(9382):440-445. PubMed

Chen, J., Lewis, E. E., Carey, J. R., Caswell, H., and Caswell-Chen, E. P. (2006). "The ecology and biodemography of Caenorhabditis elegans." Exp Gerontol 41(10):1059-1065. PubMed

Chen, D., Pan, K. Z., Palter, J. E., and Kapahi, P. (2007). "Longevity determined by developmental arrest genes in Caenorhabditis elegans." Aging Cell 6(4):525-533. PubMed

Chiu, C. P., Dragowska, W., Kim, N. W., Vaziri, H., Yui, J., Thomas, T. E., Harley, C. B., and Lansdorp, P. M. (1996). "Differential expression of telomerase activity in hematopoietic progenitors from adult human bone marrow." Stem Cells 14(2):239-248. PubMed

Ch'ng, Q., Sieburth, D., and Kaplan, J. M. (2008). "Profiling synaptic proteins identifies regulators of insulin secretion and lifespan." PLoS Genet 4(11):e1000283. PubMed

Choi, H. S., Lin, Z., Li, B. S., and Liu, A. Y. (1990). "Age-dependent decrease in the heat-inducible DNA sequence-specific binding activity in human diploid fibroblasts." J Biol Chem 265(29):18005-18011. PubMed

Choi, D., Whittier, P. S., Oshima, J., and Funk, W. D. (2001). "Telomerase expression prevents replicative senescence but does not fully reset mRNA expression patterns in Werner syndrome cell strains." Faseb J 15(6):1014-1020. PubMed

Cibelli, J. B., Stice, S. L., Golueke, P. J., Kane, J. J., Jerry, J., Blackwell, C., Ponce de Leon, F. A., and Robl, J. M. (1998). "Cloned transgenic calves produced from nonquiescent fetal fibroblasts." Science 280(5367):1256-1258. PubMed

Cibelli, J. B., Lanza, R. P., West, M. D., and Ezzell, C. (2002). "The first human cloned embryo." Sci Am 286(1):44-51. PubMed

Clancy, D. J., Gems, D., Harshman, L. G., Oldham, S., Stocker, H., Hafen, E., Leevers, S. J., and Partridge, L. (2001). "Extension of life-span by loss of CHICO, a Drosophila insulin receptor substrate protein." Science 292(5514):104-106. PubMed

Clausen, A., Doctrow, S., and Baudry, M. (2010). "Prevention of cognitive deficits and brain oxidative stress with superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics in aged mice." Neurobiol Aging 31(3):425-433. PubMed

Codd, V., Nelson, C. P., Albrecht, E., Mangino, M., Deelen, J., Buxton, J. L., Hottenga, J. J., Fischer, K., Esko, T., Surakka, I., et al. (2013). "Identification of seven loci affecting mean telomere length and their association with disease." Nat Genet 45(4):422-427, 427e421-422. PubMed

Cohen, A. A. (2004). "Female post-reproductive lifespan: a general mammalian trait." Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 79(4):733-750. PubMed

Cohen, H. Y., Miller, C., Bitterman, K. J., Wall, N. R., Hekking, B., Kessler, B., Howitz, K. T., Gorospe, M., de Cabo, R., and Sinclair, D. A. (2004). "Calorie restriction promotes mammalian cell survival by inducing the SIRT1 deacetylase." Science 305(5682):390-392. PubMed

Cohen, E., Bieschke, J., Perciavalle, R. M., Kelly, J. W., and Dillin, A. (2006). "Opposing activities protect against age-onset proteotoxicity." Science 313(5793):1604-1610. PubMed

Coles, L. S. (2004). "Demographics of human supercentenarians and the implications for longevity medicine." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1019:490-495. PubMed

Coles, L. S., and Young, R. D. (2012). "Supercentenarians and transthyretin amyloidosis: the next frontier of human life extension." Prev Med 54 Suppl:S9-11. PubMed

Colgin, L. M., and Reddel, R. R. (1999). "Telomere maintenance mechanisms and cellular immortalization." Curr Opin Genet Dev 9(1):97-103. PubMed

Collins, K., and Mitchell, J. R. (2002). "Telomerase in the human organism." Oncogene 21(4):564-579. PubMed

Collins, F. S., Rossant, J., and Wurst, W. (2007). "A mouse for all reasons." Cell 128(1):9-13. PubMed

Colman, R. J., Anderson, R. M., Johnson, S. C., Kastman, E. K., Kosmatka, K. J., Beasley, T. M., Allison, D. B., Cruzen, C., Simmons, H. A., Kemnitz, J. W., et al. (2009). "Caloric restriction delays disease onset and mortality in rhesus monkeys." Science 325(5937):201-204. PubMed

Comfort, A. (1964). Ageing: The Biology of Senescence. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

Comfort, A. (1968). "Feasibility in age research." Nature 217(5126):320-322. PubMed

Comfort, A., Youhotsky-Gore, I., and Pathmanathan, K. (1971). "Effect of ethoxyquin on the longevity of C3H mice." Nature 229(5282):254-255. PubMed

Conboy, I. M., Conboy, M. J., Wagers, A. J., Girma, E. R., Weissman, I. L., and Rando, T. A. (2005). "Rejuvenation of aged progenitor cells by exposure to a young systemic environment." Nature 433(7027):760-764. PubMed

Congdon, J. D., Nagle, R. D., Kinney, O. M., and van Loben Sels, R. C. (2001). "Hypotheses of aging in a long-lived vertebrate, Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii)." Exp Gerontol 36(4-6):813-827. PubMed

Congdon, J. D., Nagle, R. D., Kinney, O. M., van Loben Sels, R. C., Quinter, T., and Tinkle, D. W. (2003). "Testing hypotheses of aging in long-lived painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)." Exp Gerontol 38(7):765-772. PubMed

Cook, R. E. (1983). "Clonal plant populations." Am Sci 71:244-253.

Cooper, T. M., Mockett, R. J., Sohal, B. H., Sohal, R. S., and Orr, W. C. (2004). "Effect of caloric restriction on life span of the housefly, Musca domestica." Faseb J 18(13):1591-1593. PubMed

Corral-Debrinski, M., Horton, T., Lott, M. T., Shoffner, J. M., Beal, M. F., and Wallace, D. C. (1992). "Mitochondrial DNA deletions in human brain: regional variability and increase with advanced age." Nat Genet 2(4):324-329. PubMed

Cortopassi, G. A., and Wang, E. (1996). "There is substantial agreement among interspecies estimates of DNA repair activity." Mech Ageing Dev 91(3):211-218. PubMed

Coschigano, K. T., Clemmons, D., Bellush, L. L., and Kopchick, J. J. (2000). "Assessment of growth parameters and life span of GHR/BP gene-disrupted mice." Endocrinology 141(7):2608-2613. PubMed

Cosgrove, G. E., Selby, P. B., Upton, A. C., Mitchell, T. J., Steele, M. H., and Russell, W. L. (1993). "Lifespan and autopsy findings in the first-generation offspring of X-irradiated male mice." Mutat Res 319(1):71-79. PubMed

Counter, C. M., Avilion, A. A., LeFeuvre, C. E., Stewart, N. G., Greider, C. W., Harley, C. B., and Bacchetti, S. (1992). "Telomere shortening associated with chromosome instability is arrested in immortal cells which express telomerase activity." Embo J 11(5):1921-1929. PubMed

Counter, C. M., Gupta, J., Harley, C. B., Leber, B., and Bacchetti, S. (1995). "Telomerase activity in normal leukocytes and in hematologic malignancies." Blood 85(9):2315-2320. PubMed

Counter, C. M., Meyerson, M., Eaton, E. N., Ellisen, L. W., Caddle, S. D., Haber, D. A., and Weinberg, R. A. (1998). "Telomerase activity is restored in human cells by ectopic expression of hTERT (hEST2), the catalytic subunit of telomerase." Oncogene 16(9):1217-1222. PubMed

Craik, F. I. M., and Salthouse, T. A. (1992). Handbook of Aging and Cognition. Erlbaum, Hillsdale.

Cristofalo, V. J., and Sharf, B. B. (1973). "Cellular senescence and DNA synthesis. Thymidine incorporation as a measure of population age in human diploid cells." Exp Cell Res 76(2):419-427. PubMed

Cristofalo, V. J., and Pignolo, R. J. (1993). "Replicative senescence of human fibroblast-like cells in culture." Physiol Rev 73(3):617-638. PubMed

Cristofalo, V. J., Volker, C., Francis, M. K., and Tresini, M. (1998a). "Age-dependent modifications of gene expression in human fibroblasts." Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 8(1):43-80. PubMed

Cristofalo, V. J., Allen, R. G., Pignolo, R. J., Martin, B. G., and Beck, J. C. (1998b). "Relationship between donor age and the replicative lifespan of human cells in culture: a reevaluation." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(18):10614-10619. PubMed

Cristofalo, V. (2001). ""I no longer believe that cell death is programmed. ..", an interview with Vincent Cristofalo." Biogerontology 2(4):283-290. PubMed

Cuervo, A. M., Bergamini, E., Brunk, U. T., Droge, W., Ffrench, M., and Terman, A. (2005). "Autophagy and aging: the importance of maintaining "clean" cells." Autophagy 1(3):131-140. PubMed

Cutler, R. G. (1975). "Evolution of human longevity and the genetic complexity governing aging rate." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 72(11):4664-4668. PubMed

Cutler, R. G. (1979). "Evolution of human longevity: a critical overview." Mech Ageing Dev 9(3-4):337-354. PubMed

Cutler, R. G. (1985). "Antioxidants and longevity of mammalian species." Basic Life Sci 35:15-73. PubMed

Czupryn, A., Zhou, Y. D., Chen, X., McNay, D., Anderson, M. P., Flier, J. S., and Macklis, J. D. (2011). "Transplanted hypothalamic neurons restore leptin signaling and ameliorate obesity in db/db mice." Science 334(6059):1133-1137. PubMed

Das, M., Gabriely, I., and Barzilai, N. (2004). "Caloric restriction, body fat and ageing in experimental models." Obes Rev 5(1):13-19. PubMed

Davenport, R. J. (2003). "Power to the people." Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2003(50):NS8. PubMed

Davidson, B. L., and McCray, P. B. (2011). "Current prospects for RNA interference-based therapies." Nat Rev Genet 12(5):329-340. PubMed

Davis, J. K. (2004). "Collective suttee: is it unjust to develop life extension if it will not be possible to provide it to everyone?" Ann N Y Acad Sci 1019:535-541. PubMed

Davis, J. K. (2005). "Life-extension and the Malthusian Objection." J Med Philos 30(1):27-44. PubMed

de Boer, J., Andressoo, J. O., de Wit, J., Huijmans, J., Beems, R. B., van Steeg, H., Weeda, G., van der Horst, G. T., van Leeuwen, W., Themmen, A. P., et al. (2002). "Premature aging in mice deficient in DNA repair and transcription." Science 296(5571):1276-1279. PubMed

de Grey, A. D. (1997). "A proposed refinement of the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging." Bioessays 19(2):161-166. PubMed

de Grey, A. D., Ames, B. N., Andersen, J. K., Bartke, A., Campisi, J., Heward, C. B., McCarter, R. J., and Stock, G. (2002a). "Time to talk SENS: critiquing the immutability of human aging." Ann N Y Acad Sci 959:452-462; discussion 463-455. PubMed

de Grey, A. D., Baynes, J. W., Berd, D., Heward, C. B., Pawelec, G., and Stock, G. (2002b). "Is human aging still mysterious enough to be left only to scientists?" Bioessays 24(7):667-676. PubMed

de Grey, A. D. (2003). "An engineer's approach to the development of real anti-aging medicine." Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2003(1):VP1. PubMed

de Grey, A. D. (2005a). "The unfortunate influence of the weather on the rate of ageing: why human caloric restriction or its emulation may only extend life expectancy by 2-3 years." Gerontology 51(2):73-82. PubMed

de Grey, A. D. (2005b). "Whole-body interdiction of lengthening of telomeres: a proposal for cancer prevention." Front Biosci 10:2420-2429. PubMed

de Grey, A. D. (2005c). "Like it or not, life-extension research extends beyond biogerontology." EMBO Rep 6(11):1000. PubMed

de Grey, A. D. (2005d). "Resistance to debate on how to postpone ageing is delaying progress and costing lives. Open discussions in the biogerontology community would attract public interest and influence funding policy." EMBO Rep 6 Spec No:S49-53. PubMed

de Grey, A. D. (2006). "Is SENS a farrago?" Rejuvenation Res 9(4):436-439. PubMed

de Grey, A., and Rae, M. (2008). Ending Aging: The Rejuvenation Breakthroughs that Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime. St. Martin's Press, New York.

de Haan, G., and Van Zant, G. (1999). "Genetic analysis of hemopoietic cell cycling in mice suggests its involvement in organismal life span." Faseb J 13(6):707-713. PubMed

de Jesus, B. B., Schneeberger, K., Vera, E., Tejera, A., Harley, C. B., and Blasco, M. A. (2011). "The telomerase activator TA-65 elongates short telomeres and increases health span of adult/old mice without increasing cancer incidence." Aging Cell 10(4):604-621. PubMed

De Luca, G., Ventura, I., Sanghez, V., Russo, M. T., Ajmone-Cat, M. A., Cacci, E., Martire, A., Popoli, P., Falcone, G., Michelini, F., et al. (2013). "Prolonged lifespan with enhanced exploratory behavior in mice overexpressing the oxidized nucleoside triphosphatase hMTH1." Aging Cell 12(4):695-705. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., and Toussaint, O. (2002). "The evolution of mammalian aging." Exp Gerontol 37(6):769-775. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P. (2003). "Is mammalian aging genetically controlled?" Biogerontology 4(2):119-120. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P. (2004). "From cells to ageing: a review of models and mechanisms of cellular senescence and their impact on human ageing." Exp Cell Res 300(1):1-10. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., Chainiaux, F., de Longueville, F., Mainfroid, V., Migeot, V., Marcq, L., Remacle, J., Salmon, M., and Toussaint, O. (2004). "Gene expression and regulation in H2O2-induced premature senescence of human foreskin fibroblasts expressing or not telomerase." Exp Gerontol 39(9):1379-1389. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., and Toussaint, O. (2004a). "Telomeres and telomerase: a modern fountain of youth?" Rejuvenation Res 7(2):126-133. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., and Toussaint, O. (2004b). "How bioinformatics can help reverse engineer human aging." Ageing Res Rev 3(2):125-141. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P. (2005a). "Open-minded scepticism: inferring the causal mechanisms of human ageing from genetic perturbations." Ageing Res Rev 4(1):1-22. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P. (2005b). "Human disease-associated mitochondrial mutations fixed in nonhuman primates." J Mol Evol 61(4):491-497. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., Cabral, J. A., and Magalhaes, D. (2005). "The influence of genes on the aging process of mice: a statistical assessment of the genetics of aging." Genetics 169(1):265-274. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., and Church, G. M. (2005). "Genomes optimize reproduction: aging as a consequence of the developmental program." Physiology (Bethesda) 20:252-259. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., and Sandberg, A. (2005). "Cognitive aging as an extension of brain development: A model linking learning, brain plasticity, and neurodegeneration." Mech Ageing Dev 126(10):1026-1033. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P. (2006). "Species selection in comparative studies of aging and antiaging research." In: Handbook of Models for Human Aging, Conn, P. M. (ed.).  Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA, 9-20.

de Magalhaes, J. P., and Church, G. M. (2006). "Cells discover fire: employing reactive oxygen species in development and consequences for aging." Exp Gerontol 41(1):1-10. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., and Church, G. M. (2007). "Analyses of human-chimpanzee orthologous gene pairs to explore evolutionary hypotheses of aging." Mech Ageing Dev 128(5-6):355-364. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., Costa, J., and Church, G. M. (2007a). "An analysis of the relationship between metabolism, developmental schedules, and longevity using phylogenetic independent contrasts." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62(2):149-160. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., Sedivy, J. M., Finch, C. E., Austad, S. N., and Church, G. M. (2007b). "A proposal to sequence genomes of unique interest for research on aging." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62(6):583-584. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., and Faragher, R. G. (2008). "Cell divisions and mammalian aging: integrative biology insights from genes that regulate longevity." Bioessays 30(6):567-578. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P. (2009). "Aging Research in the Post-Genome Era: New Technologies for an Old Problem." In: Redox Metabolism and Longevity Relationships in Animals and Plants, Foyer, C. H., Faragher, R. and Thornalley, P. J. (ed.).  Taylor and Francis, New York and Abingdon, 99-115.

de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009). "A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits." J Evol Biol 22(8):1770-1774. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., Budovsky, A., Lehmann, G., Costa, J., Li, Y., Fraifeld, V., and Church, G. M. (2009a). "The Human Ageing Genomic Resources: online databases and tools for biogerontologists." Aging Cell 8(1):65-72. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., Curado, J., and Church, G. M. (2009b). "Meta-analysis of age-related gene expression profiles identifies common signatures of aging." Bioinformatics 25(7):875-881. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., Finch, C. E., and Janssens, G. (2010). "Next-generation sequencing in aging research: emerging applications, problems, pitfalls and possible solutions." Ageing Res Rev 9(3):315-323. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P. (2011). "The biology of ageing: A primer." In: An Introduction to Gerontology, Stuart-Hamilton, I. (ed.).  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 21-47.

de Magalhaes, J. P. (2012). "Programmatic features of aging originating in development: aging mechanisms beyond molecular damage?" Faseb J 26(12):4821-4826. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P., Wuttke, D., Wood, S. H., Plank, M., and Vora, C. (2012). "Genome-environment interactions that modulate aging: powerful targets for drug discovery." Pharmacol Rev 64(1):88-101. PubMed

de Magalhaes, J. P. (2013). "How ageing processes influence cancer." Nat Rev Cancer 13(5):357-365. PubMed

Decary, S., Mouly, V., Hamida, C. B., Sautet, A., Barbet, J. P., and Butler-Browne, G. S. (1997). "Replicative potential and telomere length in human skeletal muscle: implications for satellite cell-mediated gene therapy." Hum Gene Ther 8(12):1429-1438. PubMed

Dekker, P., Maier, A. B., van Heemst, D., de Koning-Treurniet, C., Blom, J., Dirks, R. W., Tanke, H. J., and Westendorp, R. G. (2009). "Stress-induced responses of human skin fibroblasts in vitro reflect human longevity." Aging Cell 8(5):595-603. PubMed

Demontis, F., and Perrimon, N. (2010). "FOXO/4E-BP signaling in Drosophila muscles regulates organism-wide proteostasis during aging." Cell 143(5):813-825. PubMed

Deng, Y., Chan, S. S., and Chang, S. (2008). "Telomere dysfunction and tumour suppression: the senescence connection." Nat Rev Cancer 8(6):450-458. PubMed

Di Mitri, D., Azevedo, R. I., Henson, S. M., Libri, V., Riddell, N. E., Macaulay, R., Kipling, D., Soares, M. V., Battistini, L., and Akbar, A. N. (2011). "Reversible senescence in human CD4+CD45RA+CD27- memory T cells." J Immunol 187(5):2093-2100. PubMed

Dierick, Frippiat, Salmon, Chainiaux, and Toussaint (2003). "Cells, stress and tissue ageing." In: Biology of Aging and its Modulation, Rattan, S. I. S. (ed.).  Kluwer, Amsterdam, 101-125.

Dillin, A., Crawford, D. K., and Kenyon, C. (2002). "Timing requirements for insulin/IGF-1 signaling in C. elegans." Science 298(5594):830-834. PubMed

DiMasi, J. A., Feldman, L., Seckler, A., and Wilson, A. (2010). "Trends in risks associated with new drug development: success rates for investigational drugs." Clin Pharmacol Ther 87(3):272-277. PubMed

DiMauro, S., Tanji, K., Bonilla, E., Pallotti, F., and Schon, E. A. (2002). "Mitochondrial abnormalities in muscle and other aging cells: classification, causes, and effects." Muscle Nerve 26(5):597-607. PubMed

DiMauro, S., and Schon, E. A. (2003). "Mitochondrial respiratory-chain diseases." N Engl J Med 348(26):2656-2668. PubMed

Dimri, G. P., Lee, X., Basile, G., Acosta, M., Scott, G., Roskelley, C., Medrano, E. E., Linskens, M., Rubelj, I., Pereira-Smith, O., et al. (1995). "A biomarker that identifies senescent human cells in culture and in aging skin in vivo." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(20):9363-9367. PubMed

Dirks, A. J., and Leeuwenburgh, C. (2006). "Caloric restriction in humans: potential pitfalls and health concerns." Mech Ageing Dev 127(1):1-7. PubMed

Dolle, M. E., Giese, H., Hopkins, C. L., Martus, H. J., Hausdorff, J. M., and Vijg, J. (1997). "Rapid accumulation of genome rearrangements in liver but not in brain of old mice." Nat Genet 17(4):431-434. PubMed

Dolle, M. E., and Vijg, J. (2002). "Genome dynamics in aging mice." Genome Res 12(11):1732-1738. PubMed

Dominguez, L. J., Barbagallo, M., and Morley, J. E. (2009). "Anti-aging medicine: pitfalls and hopes." Aging Male 12(1):13-20. PubMed

Donehower, L. A., Harvey, M., Slagle, B. L., McArthur, M. J., Montgomery, C. A., Jr., Butel, J. S., and Bradley, A. (1992). "Mice deficient for p53 are developmentally normal but susceptible to spontaneous tumours." Nature 356(6366):215-221. PubMed

Donehower, L. A. (2002). "Does p53 affect organismal aging?" J Cell Physiol 192(1):23-33. PubMed

Drexler, E. K. (1986). Engines of Creation. Anchor Press, Garden City.

Ducray, C., Pommier, J. P., Martins, L., Boussin, F. D., and Sabatier, L. (1999). "Telomere dynamics, end-to-end fusions and telomerase activation during the human fibroblast immortalization process." Oncogene 18(29):4211-4223. PubMed

Duffy, P. H., Feuers, R., Nakamura, K. D., Leakey, J., and Hart, R. W. (1990). "Effect of chronic caloric restriction on the synchronization of various physiological measures in old female Fischer 344 rats." Chronobiol Int 7(2):113-124. PubMed

Dulic, V., Beney, G. E., Frebourg, G., Drullinger, L. F., and Stein, G. H. (2000). "Uncoupling between phenotypic senescence and cell cycle arrest in aging p21-deficient fibroblasts." Mol Cell Biol 20(18):6741-6754. PubMed

Dumont, P., Burton, M., Chen, Q. M., Gonos, E. S., Frippiat, C., Mazarati, J. B., Eliaers, F., Remacle, J., and Toussaint, O. (2000a). "Induction of replicative senescence biomarkers by sublethal oxidative stresses in normal human fibroblast." Free Radical Biol Med 28(3):361-373. PubMed

Dumont, P., Balbeur, L., Remacle, J., and Toussaint, O. (2000b). "Appearance of biomarkers of in vitro ageing after successive stimulation of WI-38 fibroblasts with IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha: senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity and morphotype transition." J Anat 197 Pt 4:529-537. PubMed

Dunham, M. A., Neumann, A. A., Fasching, C. L., and Reddel, R. R. (2000). "Telomere maintenance by recombination in human cells." Nat Genet 26(4):447-450. PubMed

Durieux, J., Wolff, S., and Dillin, A. (2011). "The cell-non-autonomous nature of electron transport chain-mediated longevity." Cell 144(1):79-91. PubMed

Dyson, N., Howley, P. M., Munger, K., and Harlow, E. (1989). "The human papilloma virus-16 E7 oncoprotein is able to bind to the retinoblastoma gene product." Science 243(4893):934-937. PubMed

Ebert, T. A., and Southon, J. R. (2003). " Red sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) can live over 100 years: confirmation with A-bomb 14carbon." Fish Bull 101(4):915-922.

Edamatsu, R., Mori, A., and Packer, L. (1995). "The spin-trap N-tert-alpha-phenyl-butylnitrone prolongs the life span of the senescence accelerated mouse." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 211(3):847-849. PubMed

Effros, R. B. (1996). "Insights on immunological aging derived from the T lymphocyte cellular senescence model." Exp Gerontol 31(1-2):21-27. PubMed

Effros, R. B. (2009). "Kleemeier Award Lecture 2008--the canary in the coal mine: telomeres and human healthspan." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 64(5):511-515. PubMed

Epel, E. S., Blackburn, E. H., Lin, J., Dhabhar, F. S., Adler, N. E., Morrow, J. D., and Cawthon, R. M. (2004). "Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(49):17312-17315. PubMed

Eriksson, P. S., Perfilieva, E., Bjork-Eriksson, T., Alborn, A. M., Nordborg, C., Peterson, D. A., and Gage, F. H. (1998). "Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus." Nat Med 4(11):1313-1317. PubMed

Eriksson, M., Brown, W. T., Gordon, L. B., Glynn, M. W., Singer, J., Scott, L., Erdos, M. R., Robbins, C. M., Moses, T. Y., Berglund, P., et al. (2003). "Recurrent de novo point mutations in lamin A cause Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome." Nature 423(6937):293-298. PubMed

Esposito, D., Fassina, G., Szabo, P., De Angelis, P., Rodgers, L., Weksler, M., and Siniscalco, M. (1989). "Chromosomes of older humans are more prone to aminopterine-induced breakage." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86(4):1302-1306. PubMed

Failla, G. (1958). "The aging process and cancerogenesis." Ann N Y Acad Sci 71(6):1124-1140. PubMed

Farrelly, C. (2010). "Why aging research? The moral imperative to retard human aging." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1197:1-8. PubMed

Fearon, E. R. (1997). "Human cancer syndromes: clues to the origin and nature of cancer." Science 278(5340):1043-1050. PubMed

Feng, J., Funk, W. D., Wang, S. S., Weinrich, S. L., Avilion, A. A., Chiu, C. P., Adams, R. R., Chang, E., Allsopp, R. C., Yu, J., et al. (1995). "The RNA component of human telomerase." Science 269(5228):1236-1241. PubMed

Ferguson, B. A., Dreisbach, T. A., Parks, C. G., Filip, G. M., and Schmitt, C. L. (2003). "Coarse-scale population structure of pathogenic Armillaria species in a mixed-conifer forest in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon." Can J For Res 33(4):612-623.

Finch, C. E. (1976). "The regulation of physiological changes during mammalian aging." Q Rev Biol 51(1):49-83. PubMed

Finch, C. E. (1990). Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.

Finch, C. E., and Pike, M. C. (1996). "Maximum life span predictions from the Gompertz mortality model." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 51(3):B183-194. PubMed

Fleming, J. E., Reveillaud, I., and Niedzwiecki, A. (1992). "Role of oxidative stress in Drosophila aging." Mutat Res 275(3-6):267-279. PubMed

Flurkey, K., Papaconstantinou, J., Miller, R. A., and Harrison, D. E. (2001). "Lifespan extension and delayed immune and collagen aging in mutant mice with defects in growth hormone production." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(12):6736-6741. PubMed

Font, E., Desfilis, E., Perez-Canellas, M. M., and Garcia-Verdugo, J. M. (2001). "Neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration in the adult reptilian brain." Brain Behav Evol 58(5):276-295. PubMed

Fontana, L., Meyer, T. E., Klein, S., and Holloszy, J. O. (2004). "Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(17):6659-6663. PubMed

Fontana, L., and Klein, S. (2007). "Aging, adiposity, and calorie restriction." Jama 297(9):986-994. PubMed

Fontana, L., Partridge, L., and Longo, V. D. (2010). "Extending healthy life span--from yeast to humans." Science 328(5976):321-326. PubMed

Forster, M. J., Morris, P., and Sohal, R. S. (2003). "Genotype and age influence the effect of caloric intake on mortality in mice." Faseb J 17(6):690-692. PubMed

Fossel, M. (1996). Reversing Human Aging. William Morrow and Company, New York.

Franceschi, C., Mondello, C., Bonafe, M., Valensin, S., Sansoni, P., and Sorbi, S. (1999). "Long telomeres and well preserved proliferative vigor in cells from centenarians: a contribution to longevity?" Aging (Milano) 11(2):69-72. PubMed

Franceschi, C., Bonafe, M., Valensin, S., Olivieri, F., De Luca, M., Ottaviani, E., and De Benedictis, G. (2000). "Inflamm-aging. An evolutionary perspective on immunosenescence." Ann N Y Acad Sci 908:244-254. PubMed

Freitas, R. (1999). Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities. Landes Bioscience, Georgetown.

Freitas, R. (2003). Nanomedicine, Volume IIA: Biocompatibility. Landes Bioscience, Georgetown.

Freitas, A. A., and de Magalhaes, J. P. (2011). "A review and appraisal of the DNA damage theory of ageing." Mutat Res 728(1-2):12-22. PubMed

Freitas, A. A., Vasieva, O., and de Magalhaes, J. P. (2011). "A data mining approach for classifying DNA repair genes into ageing-related or non-ageing-related." BMC Genomics 12:27. PubMed

Freund, A., Orjalo, A. V., Desprez, P. Y., and Campisi, J. (2010). "Inflammatory networks during cellular senescence: causes and consequences." Trends Mol Med 16(5):238-246. PubMed

Friguet, B., Bulteau, A. L., Chondrogianni, N., Conconi, M., and Petropoulos, I. (2000). "Protein degradation by the proteasome and its implications in aging." Ann N Y Acad Sci 908:143-154. PubMed

Froy, O., and Miskin, R. (2007). "The interrelations among feeding, circadian rhythms and ageing." Prog Neurobiol 82(3):142-150. PubMed

Fry, M. (2002). "The Werner syndrome helicase-nuclease--one protein, many mysteries." Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2002(13):re2. PubMed

Fujioka, K., Greenway, F., Sheard, J., and Ying, Y. (2006). "The effects of grapefruit on weight and insulin resistance: relationship to the metabolic syndrome." J Med Food 9(1):49-54. PubMed

Fukuchi, K., Martin, G. M., and Monnat, R. J., Jr. (1989). "Mutator phenotype of Werner syndrome is characterized by extensive deletions." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86(15):5893-5897. PubMed

Funk, W. D., Wang, C. K., Shelton, D. N., Harley, C. B., Pagon, G. D., and Hoeffler, W. K. (2000). "Telomerase expression restores dermal integrity to in vitro-aged fibroblasts in a reconstituted skin model." Exp Cell Res 258(2):270-278. PubMed

Gallo, R. C., and Montagnier, L. (2003). "The discovery of HIV as the cause of AIDS." N Engl J Med 349(24):2283-2285. PubMed

Garcia, A. M., Busuttil, R. A., Calder, R. B., Dolle, M. E., Diaz, V., McMahan, C. A., Bartke, A., Nelson, J., Reddick, R., and Vijg, J. (2008). "Effect of Ames dwarfism and caloric restriction on spontaneous DNA mutation frequency in different mouse tissues." Mech Ageing Dev 129(9):528-533. PubMed

Gardner, E. M. (2005). "Caloric restriction decreases survival of aged mice in response to primary influenza infection." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60(6):688-694. PubMed

Gardner, M. P., Gems, D., and Viney, M. E. (2006). "Extraordinary plasticity in aging in Strongyloides ratti implies a gene-regulatory mechanism of lifespan evolution." Aging Cell 5(4):315-323. PubMed

Gavrilov, L. A., and Gavrilova, N. S. (2001). "The reliability theory of aging and longevity." J Theor Biol 213(4):527-545. PubMed

Gavrilov, L. A., and Gavrilova, N. S. (2002). "Evolutionary theories of aging and longevity." ScientificWorldJournal 2:339-356. PubMed

Gebhart, E., Bauer, R., Raub, U., Schinzel, M., Ruprecht, K. W., and Jonas, J. B. (1988). "Spontaneous and induced chromosomal instability in Werner syndrome." Hum Genet 80(2):135-139. PubMed

Geiger, H., and Van Zant, G. (2002). "The aging of lympho-hematopoietic stem cells." Nat Immunol 3(4):329-333. PubMed

Gems, D. (2011). "Tragedy and delight: the ethics of decelerated ageing." Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366(1561):108-112. PubMed

Gensler, H. L., and Bernstein, H. (1981). "DNA damage as the primary cause of aging." Q Rev Biol 56(3):279-303. PubMed

George, J. C., Bada, J., WZeh, J., Brown, S. E., O'Hara, T., and Suydam, R. (1999). "Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) via aspartic acid racemization." Can J Zool 77:571-580.

Gerland, L. M., Peyrol, S., Lallemand, C., Branche, R., Magaud, J. P., and Ffrench, M. (2003). "Association of increased autophagic inclusions labeled for beta-galactosidase with fibroblastic aging." Exp Gerontol 38(8):887-895. PubMed

Gerschman, R., Gilbert, D. L., Nye, S. W., Dwyer, P., and Fenn, W. O. (1954). "Oxygen poisoning and x-irradiation: a mechanism in common." Science 119(3097):623-626. PubMed

Gershon, H., and Gershon, D. (1970). "Detection of inactive enzyme molecules in ageing organisms." Nature 227(5264):1214-1217. PubMed

Gershon, H., and Gershon, D. (2000a). "Paradigms in aging research: a critical review and assessment." Mech Ageing Dev 117(1-3):21-28. PubMed

Gershon, H., and Gershon, D. (2000b). "The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model for aging research: a critical review." Mech Ageing Dev 120(1-3):1-22. PubMed

Giacomoni, P. U., Declercq, L., Hellemans, L., and Maes, D. (2000). "Aging of human skin: review of a mechanistic model and first experimental data." IUBMB Life 49(4):259-263. PubMed

Going, J. J., Stuart, R. C., Downie, M., Fletcher-Monaghan, A. J., and Keith, W. N. (2002). "'Senescence-associated' beta-galactosidase activity in the upper gastrointestinal tract." J Pathol 196(4):394-400. PubMed

Goldsmith, T. C. (2004). "Aging as an evolved characteristic - Weismann's theory reconsidered." Med Hypotheses 62(2):304-308. PubMed

Goldstein, S. (1974). "Aging in vitro. Growth of cultured cells from the Galapagos tortoise." Exp Cell Res 83(2):297-302. PubMed

Goldstein, S. (1990). "Replicative senescence: the human fibroblast comes of age." Science 249(4973):1129-1133. PubMed

Gomes, N. M., Ryder, O. A., Houck, M. L., Charter, S. J., Walker, W., Forsyth, N. R., Austad, S. N., Venditti, C., Pagel, M., Shay, J. W., et al. (2011). "Comparative biology of mammalian telomeres: hypotheses on ancestral states and the roles of telomeres in longevity determination." Aging Cell 10(5):761-768. PubMed

Gonzalez-Suarez, E., Samper, E., Flores, J. M., and Blasco, M. A. (2000). "Telomerase-deficient mice with short telomeres are resistant to skin tumorigenesis." Nat Genet 26(1):114-117. PubMed

Gonzalez-Suarez, E., Samper, E., Ramirez, A., Flores, J. M., Martin-Caballero, J., Jorcano, J. L., and Blasco, M. A. (2001). "Increased epidermal tumors and increased skin wound healing in transgenic mice overexpressing the catalytic subunit of telomerase, mTERT, in basal keratinocytes." Embo J 20(11):2619-2630. PubMed

Goodrich, D. W., and Lee, W. H. (1993). "Molecular characterization of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene." Biochim Biophys Acta 1155(1):43-61. PubMed

Gopnik, A., Meltzoff, A., and Kuhl, P. (2000). The Scientist in the Crib: What Early Learning Tells Us About the Mind. HarperCollins, New York.

Gosden, R. (1996). Cheating Time. W. H. Freeman & Company, New York.

Goto, M. (1997). "Hierarchical deterioration of body systems in Werner's syndrome: implications for normal ageing." Mech Ageing Dev 98(3):239-254. PubMed

Gould, E., Reeves, A. J., Graziano, M. S., and Gross, C. G. (1999). "Neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult primates." Science 286(5439):548-552. PubMed

Gray, M. D., Shen, J. C., Kamath-Loeb, A. S., Blank, A., Sopher, B. L., Martin, G. M., Oshima, J., and Loeb, L. A. (1997). "The Werner syndrome protein is a DNA helicase." Nat Genet 17(1):100-103. PubMed

Greenberg, J. A., and Boozer, C. N. (2000). "Metabolic mass, metabolic rate, caloric restriction, and aging in male Fischer 344 rats." Mech Ageing Dev 113(1):37-48. PubMed

Greider, C. W., and Blackburn, E. H. (1985). "Identification of a specific telomere terminal transferase activity in Tetrahymena extracts." Cell 43(2 Pt 1):405-413. PubMed

Griffith, J. D., Comeau, L., Rosenfield, S., Stansel, R. M., Bianchi, A., Moss, H., and de Lange, T. (1999). "Mammalian telomeres end in a large duplex loop." Cell 97(4):503-514. PubMed

Grossman, C. J. (1984). "Regulation of the immune system by sex steroids." Endocr Rev 5(3):435-455. PubMed

Grossman, T. (2005). "Latest advances in antiaging medicine." Keio J Med 54(2):85-94. PubMed

Grube, K., and Burkle, A. (1992). "Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in mononuclear leukocytes of 13 mammalian species correlates with species-specific life span." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(24):11759-11763. PubMed

Guevara-Aguirre, J., Balasubramanian, P., Guevara-Aguirre, M., Wei, M., Madia, F., Cheng, C. W., Hwang, D., Martin-Montalvo, A., Saavedra, J., Ingles, S., et al. (2011). "Growth hormone receptor deficiency is associated with a major reduction in pro-aging signaling, cancer, and diabetes in humans." Sci Transl Med 3(70):70ra13. PubMed

Gurdon, J. B., Laskey, R. A., and Reeves, O. R. (1975). "The developmental capacity of nuclei transplanted from keratinized skin cells of adult frogs." J Embryol Exp Morphol 34(1):93-112. PubMed

Hahn, W. C. (2003). "Role of telomeres and telomerase in the pathogenesis of human cancer." J Clin Oncol 21(10):2034-2043. PubMed

Haigh, R., and Bagaric, M. (2002). "Immortality and sentencing law." The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law 2

Hamad, N. M., Elconin, J. H., Karnoub, A. E., Bai, W., Rich, J. N., Abraham, R. T., Der, C. J., and Counter, C. M. (2002). "Distinct requirements for Ras oncogenesis in human versus mouse cells." Genes Dev 16(16):2045-2057. PubMed

Hamilton, W. D. (1966). "The moulding of senescence by natural selection." J Theor Biol 12(1):12-45. PubMed

Hamilton, J. B., and Mestler, G. E. (1969). "Mortality and survival: comparison of eunuchs with intact men and women in a mentally retarded population." J Gerontol 24(4):395-411. PubMed

Hamilton, M. L., Van Remmen, H., Drake, J. A., Yang, H., Guo, Z. M., Kewitt, K., Walter, C. A., and Richardson, A. (2001). "Does oxidative damage to DNA increase with age?" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(18):10469-10474. PubMed

Hamilton, B., Dong, Y., Shindo, M., Liu, W., Odell, I., Ruvkun, G., and Lee, S. S. (2005). "A systematic RNAi screen for longevity genes in C. elegans." Genes Dev 19(13):1544-1555. PubMed

Hammerman, M. R. (1987). "Insulin-like growth factors and aging." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 16(4):995-1011. PubMed

Han, J., Mistriotis, P., Lei, P., Wang, D., Liu, S., and Andreadis, S. T. (2012). "Nanog reverses the effects of organismal aging on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation potential." Stem Cells 30(12):2746-2759. PubMed

Hande, M. P., Samper, E., Lansdorp, P., and Blasco, M. A. (1999). "Telomere length dynamics and chromosomal instability in cells derived from telomerase null mice." J Cell Biol 144(4):589-601. PubMed

Hara, E., Tsurui, H., Shinozaki, A., Nakada, S., and Oda, K. (1991). "Cooperative effect of antisense-Rb and antisense-p53 oligomers on the extension of life span in human diploid fibroblasts, TIG-1." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 179(1):528-534. PubMed

Hara, E., Smith, R., Parry, D., Tahara, H., Stone, S., and Peters, G. (1996). "Regulation of p16CDKN2 expression and its implications for cell immortalization and senescence." Mol Cell Biol 16(3):859-867. PubMed

Harada, T., Tokuriki, M., and Tanioka, Y. (1999). "Age-related changes in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials of the marmoset." Hear Res 128(1-2):119-124. PubMed

Hari, R., Burde, V., and Arking, R. (1998). "Immunological confirmation of elevated levels of CuZn superoxide dismutase protein in an artificially selected long-lived strain of Drosophila melanogaster." Exp Gerontol 33(3):227-237. PubMed

Harle-Bachor, C., and Boukamp, P. (1996). "Telomerase activity in the regenerative basal layer of the epidermis inhuman skin and in immortal and carcinoma-derived skin keratinocytes." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(13):6476-6481. PubMed

Harley, C. B., Pollard, J. W., Chamberlain, J. W., Stanners, C. P., and Goldstein, S. (1980). "Protein synthetic errors do not increase during aging of cultured human fibroblasts." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 77(4):1885-1889. PubMed

Harley, C. B., Futcher, A. B., and Greider, C. W. (1990). "Telomeres shorten during ageing of human fibroblasts." Nature 345(6274):458-460. PubMed

Harley, C. B., Liu, W., Blasco, M., Vera, E., Andrews, W. H., Briggs, L. A., and Raffaele, J. M. (2011). "A natural product telomerase activator as part of a health maintenance program." Rejuvenation Res 14(1):45-56. PubMed

Harman, D. (1956). "Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry." J Gerontol 11(3):298-300. PubMed

Harman, D. (1968). "Free radical theory of aging: effect of free radical reaction inhibitors on the mortality rate of male LAF mice." J Gerontol 23(4):476-482. PubMed

Harman, D. (1972). "The biologic clock: the mitochondria?" J Am Geriatr Soc 20(4):145-147. PubMed

Harman, D. (1981). "The aging process." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 78(11):7124-7128. PubMed

Harper, J. W., Adami, G. R., Wei, N., Keyomarsi, K., and Elledge, S. J. (1993). "The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases." Cell 75(4):805-816. PubMed

Harper, J. W., Elledge, S. J., Keyomarsi, K., Dynlacht, B., Tsai, L. H., Zhang, P., Dobrowolski, S., Bai, C., Connell-Crowley, L., Swindell, E., et al. (1995). "Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases by p21." Mol Biol Cell 6(4):387-400. PubMed

Harper, J. M., Leathers, C. W., and Austad, S. N. (2006). "Does caloric restriction extend life in wild mice?" Aging Cell 5(6):441-449. PubMed

Harper, J. M., Salmon, A. B., Leiser, S. F., Galecki, A. T., and Miller, R. A. (2007). "Skin-derived fibroblasts from long-lived species are resistant to some, but not all, lethal stresses and to the mitochondrial inhibitor rotenone." Aging Cell 6(1):1-13. PubMed

Harper, J. M., Wang, M., Galecki, A. T., Ro, J., Williams, J. B., and Miller, R. A. (2011). "Fibroblasts from long-lived bird species are resistant to multiple forms of stress." J Exp Biol 214(Pt 11):1902-1910. PubMed

Harris, J. (2004). "Immortal ethics." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1019:527-534. PubMed

Harrison, D. E., Strong, R., Sharp, Z. D., Nelson, J. F., Astle, C. M., Flurkey, K., Nadon, N. L., Wilkinson, J. E., Frenkel, K., Carter, C. S., et al. (2009). "Rapamycin fed late in life extends lifespan in genetically heterogeneous mice." Nature 460(7253):392-395. PubMed

Hart, R. W., and Setlow, R. B. (1974). "Correlation between deoxyribonucleic acid excision-repair and life-span in a number of mammalian species." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 71(6):2169-2173. PubMed

Harvey, P. H., and Zammuto, R. M. (1985). "Patterns of mortality and age at first reproduction in natural populations of mammals." Nature 315(6017):319-320. PubMed

Haseltine, W. A. (2004). "An interview with William A. Haseltine." Rejuvenation Res 7(3):229-231. PubMed

Hastie, N. D., Dempster, M., Dunlop, M. G., Thompson, A. M., Green, D. K., and Allshire, R. C. (1990). "Telomere reduction in human colorectal carcinoma and with ageing." Nature 346(6287):866-868. PubMed

Hasty, J., McMillen, D., and Collins, J. J. (2002). "Engineered gene circuits." Nature 420(6912):224-230. PubMed

Hasty, P., Campisi, J., Hoeijmakers, J., van Steeg, H., and Vijg, J. (2003). "Aging and genome maintenance: lessons from the mouse?" Science 299(5611):1355-1359. PubMed

Hasty, P., and Vijg, J. (2004). "Accelerating aging by mouse reverse genetics: a rational approach to understanding longevity." Aging Cell 3(2):55-65. PubMed

Haussmann, M. F., Winkler, D. W., O'Reilly, K. M., Huntington, C. E., Nisbet, I. C., and Vleck, C. M. (2003). "Telomeres shorten more slowly in long-lived birds and mammals than in short-lived ones." Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 270(1522):1387-1392. PubMed

Hayashi, J., Ohta, S., Kagawa, Y., Kondo, H., Kaneda, H., Yonekawa, H., Takai, D., and Miyabayashi, S. (1994). "Nuclear but not mitochondrial genome involvement in human age-related mitochondrial dysfunction. Functional integrity of mitochondrial DNA from aged subjects." J Biol Chem 269(9):6878-6883. PubMed

Hayflick, L., and Moorhead, P. S. (1961). "The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains." Exp Cell Res 25:585-621. PubMed

Hayflick, L. (1985). "The cell biology of aging." Clin Geriatr Med 1(1):15-27. PubMed

Hayflick, L. (1994). How and Why We Age. Ballantine Books, New York.

Hayflick, L. (2000). "The future of ageing." Nature 408(6809):267-269. PubMed

Hayflick, L. (2004). ""Anti-aging" is an oxymoron." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 59(6):B573-578. PubMed

Hedges, S. B. (2002). "The origin and evolution of model organisms." Nat Rev Genet 3(11):838-849. PubMed

Heidinger, B. J., Blount, J. D., Boner, W., Griffiths, K., Metcalfe, N. B., and Monaghan, P. (2012). "Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(5):1743-1748. PubMed

Heidrick, M. L., Hendricks, L. C., and Cook, D. E. (1984). "Effect of dietary 2-mercaptoethanol on the life span, immune system, tumor incidence and lipid peroxidation damage in spleen lymphocytes of aging BC3F1 mice." Mech Ageing Dev 27(3):341-358. PubMed

Heilbronn, L. K., de Jonge, L., Frisard, M. I., DeLany, J. P., Larson-Meyer, D. E., Rood, J., Nguyen, T., Martin, C. K., Volaufova, J., Most, M. M., et al. (2006). "Effect of 6-month calorie restriction on biomarkers of longevity, metabolic adaptation, and oxidative stress in overweight individuals: a randomized controlled trial." Jama 295(13):1539-1548. PubMed

Heinemann, M., and Panke, S. (2006). "Synthetic biology--putting engineering into biology." Bioinformatics 22(22):2790-2799. PubMed

Hemann, M. T., and Greider, C. W. (2000). "Wild-derived inbred mouse strains have short telomeres." Nucleic Acids Res 28(22):4474-4478. PubMed

Hemann, M. T., Strong, M. A., Hao, L. Y., and Greider, C. W. (2001). "The shortest telomere, not average telomere length, is critical for cell viability and chromosome stability." Cell 107(1):67-77. PubMed

Henning, K. A., Li, L., Iyer, N., McDaniel, L. D., Reagan, M. S., Legerski, R., Schultz, R. A., Stefanini, M., Lehmann, A. R., Mayne, L. V., et al. (1995). "The Cockayne syndrome group A gene encodes a WD repeat protein that interacts with CSB protein and a subunit of RNA polymerase II TFIIH." Cell 82(4):555-564. PubMed

Herbig, U., Ferreira, M., Condel, L., Carey, D., and Sedivy, J. M. (2006). "Cellular senescence in aging primates." Science 311(5765):1257. PubMed

Herranz, D., Muñoz-Martin, M., Cañamero, M., Mulero, F., Martinez-Pastor, B., Fernandez-Capetillo, O., and Serrano, M. (2010). "Sirt1 improves healthy ageing and protects from metabolic syndrome-associated cancer." Nat Commun 1:3.

Herwig, S., and Strauss, M. (1997). "The retinoblastoma protein: a master regulator of cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis." Eur J Biochem 246(3):581-601. PubMed

Hill, K., Boesch, C., Goodall, J., Pusey, A., Williams, J., and Wrangham, R. (2001). "Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees." J Hum Evol 40(5):437-450. PubMed

Hjelmborg, v. J., Iachine, I., Skytthe, A., Vaupel, J. W., McGue, M., Koskenvuo, M., Kaprio, J., Pedersen, N. L., and Christensen, K. (2006). "Genetic influence on human lifespan and longevity." Hum Genet 119(3):312-321. PubMed

Ho, K. Y., Evans, W. S., Blizzard, R. M., Veldhuis, J. D., Merriam, G. R., Samojlik, E., Furlanetto, R., Rogol, A. D., Kaiser, D. L., and Thorner, M. O. (1987). "Effects of sex and age on the 24-hour profile of growth hormone secretion in man: importance of endogenous estradiol concentrations." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 64(1):51-58. PubMed

Ho, Y. S., Magnenat, J. L., Bronson, R. T., Cao, J., Gargano, M., Sugawara, M., and Funk, C. D. (1997). "Mice deficient in cellular glutathione peroxidase develop normally and show no increased sensitivity to hyperoxia." J Biol Chem 272(26):16644-16651. PubMed

Hoeijmakers, J. H. (2009). "DNA damage, aging, and cancer." N Engl J Med 361(15):1475-1485. PubMed

Holliday, R. (1984). "The biological significance of meiosis." Symp Soc Exp Biol 38:381-394. PubMed

Holliday, R. (1995). Understanding Ageing. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Holliday, R. (2004). "The multiple and irreversible causes of aging." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 59(6):B568-572. PubMed

Holliday, R. (2009). "The extreme arrogance of anti-aging medicine." Biogerontology 10(2):223-228. PubMed

Holloszy, J. O., and Smith, E. K. (1986). "Longevity of cold-exposed rats: a reevaluation of the "rate-of-living theory"." J Appl Physiol 61(5):1656-1660. PubMed

Holloszy, J. O., and Schechtman, K. B. (1991). "Interaction between exercise and food restriction: effects on longevity of male rats." J Appl Physiol 70(4):1529-1535. PubMed

Holloszy, J. O. (1997). "Mortality rate and longevity of food-restricted exercising male rats: a reevaluation." J Appl Physiol 82(2):399-403. PubMed

Holloszy, J. O. (1998). "Longevity of exercising male rats: effect of an antioxidant supplemented diet." Mech Ageing Dev 100(3):211-219. PubMed

Holloszy, J. O. (2000). "The biology of aging." Mayo Clin Proc 75 Suppl:S3-8; discussion S8-9. PubMed

Holmes, D. J., and Austad, S. N. (1995). "Birds as animal models for the comparative biology of aging: a prospectus." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 50(2):B59-66. PubMed

Holmes, D. J., Fluckiger, R., and Austad, S. N. (2001). "Comparative biology of aging in birds: an update." Exp Gerontol 36(4-6):869-883. PubMed

Holmes, D. J., and Ottinger, M. A. (2003). "Birds as long-lived animal models for the study of aging." Exp Gerontol 38(11-12):1365-1375. PubMed

Hopkin, K. (2003). "Dietary drawbacks." Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2003(8):NS4. PubMed

Horikoshi, T., Balin, A. K., and Carter, D. M. (1986). "Effect of oxygen on the growth of human epidermal keratinocytes." J Invest Dermatol 86(4):424-427. PubMed

Horikoshi, T., Balin, A. K., and Carter, D. M. (1991). "Effects of oxygen tension on the growth and pigmentation of normal human melanocytes." J Invest Dermatol 96(6):841-844. PubMed

Horwitz, E. M., Prockop, D. J., Fitzpatrick, L. A., Koo, W. W., Gordon, P. L., Neel, M., Sussman, M., Orchard, P., Marx, J. C., Pyeritz, R. E., et al. (1999). "Transplantability and therapeutic effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells in children with osteogenesis imperfecta." Nat Med 5(3):309-313. PubMed

Howitz, K. T., Bitterman, K. J., Cohen, H. Y., Lamming, D. W., Lavu, S., Wood, J. G., Zipkin, R. E., Chung, P., Kisielewski, A., Zhang, L. L., et al. (2003). "Small molecule activators of sirtuins extend Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan." Nature 425(6954):191-196. PubMed

Hsin, H., and Kenyon, C. (1999). "Signals from the reproductive system regulate the lifespan of C. elegans." Nature 399(6734):362-366. PubMed

Huang, S., Li, B., Gray, M. D., Oshima, J., Mian, I. S., and Campisi, J. (1998). "The premature ageing syndrome protein, WRN, is a 3'-->5' exonuclease." Nat Genet 20(2):114-116. PubMed

Huang, T. T., Carlson, E. J., Gillespie, A. M., Shi, Y., and Epstein, C. J. (2000). "Ubiquitous overexpression of CuZn superoxide dismutase does not extend life span in mice." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55(1):B5-9. PubMed

Hughes, K. A., Alipaz, J. A., Drnevich, J. M., and Reynolds, R. M. (2002). "A test of evolutionary theories of aging." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(22):14286-14291. PubMed

Hunt, J., Jennions, M. D., Spyrou, N., and Brooks, R. (2006). "Artificial selection on male longevity influences age-dependent reproductive effort in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus." Am Nat 168(3):E72-86. PubMed

Hussussian, C. J., Struewing, J. P., Goldstein, A. M., Higgins, P. A., Ally, D. S., Sheahan, M. D., Clark, W. H., Jr., Tucker, M. A., and Dracopoli, N. C. (1994). "Germline p16 mutations in familial melanoma." Nat Genet 8(1):15-21. PubMed

Hwang, S. J., Lozano, G., Amos, C. I., and Strong, L. C. (2003). "Germline p53 mutations in a cohort with childhood sarcoma: sex differences in cancer risk." Am J Hum Genet 72(4):975-983. PubMed

Hwang, W. S., Ryu, Y. J., Park, J. H., Park, E. S., Lee, E. G., Koo, J. M., Jeon, H. Y., Lee, B. C., Kang, S. K., Kim, S. J., et al. (2004). "Evidence of a pluripotent human embryonic stem cell line derived from a cloned blastocyst." Science 303(5664):1669-1674. PubMed

Hwang, W. S., Roh, S. I., Lee, B. C., Kang, S. K., Kwon, D. K., Kim, S., Kim, S. J., Park, S. W., Kwon, H. S., Lee, C. K., et al. (2005). "Patient-specific embryonic stem cells derived from human SCNT blastocysts." Science 308(5729):1777-1783. PubMed

Hyun, M., Lee, J., Lee, K., May, A., Bohr, V. A., and Ahn, B. (2008). "Longevity and resistance to stress correlate with DNA repair capacity in Caenorhabditis elegans." Nucleic Acids Res 36(4):1380-1389. PubMed

Ingram, D. K., Roth, G. S., Lane, M. A., Ottinger, M. A., Zou, S., de Cabo, R., and Mattison, J. A. (2006). "The potential for dietary restriction to increase longevity in humans: extrapolation from monkey studies." Biogerontology 7(3):143-148. PubMed

Inoue, S., Koya-Miyata, S., Ushio, S., Iwaki, K., Ikeda, M., and Kurimoto, M. (2003). "Royal Jelly prolongs the life span of C3H/HeJ mice: correlation with reduced DNA damage." Exp Gerontol 38(9):965-969. PubMed

Iwama, H., Ohyashiki, K., Ohyashiki, J. H., Hayashi, S., Yahata, N., Ando, K., Toyama, K., Hoshika, A., Takasaki, M., Mori, M., et al. (1998). "Telomeric length and telomerase activity vary with age in peripheral blood cells obtained from normal individuals." Hum Genet 102(4):397-402. PubMed

Ja, W. W., West, A. P., Jr., Delker, S. L., Bjorkman, P. J., Benzer, S., and Roberts, R. W. (2007). "Extension of Drosophila melanogaster life span with a GPCR peptide inhibitor." Nat Chem Biol 3(7):415-419. PubMed

Jahng, J. W., Kim, J. G., Kim, H. J., Kim, B. T., Kang, D. W., and Lee, J. H. (2007). "Chronic food restriction in young rats results in depression- and anxiety-like behaviors with decreased expression of serotonin reuptake transporter." Brain Res 1150:100-107. PubMed

Jang, M., Cai, L., Udeani, G. O., Slowing, K. V., Thomas, C. F., Beecher, C. W., Fong, H. H., Farnsworth, N. R., Kinghorn, A. D., Mehta, R. G., et al. (1997). "Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes." Science 275(5297):218-220. PubMed

Janzen, D. H. (1976). "Why bamboos wait so long to flower." Ann Rev Ecol Sys 7:347-391.

Jaskelioff, M., Muller, F. L., Paik, J. H., Thomas, E., Jiang, S., Adams, A. C., Sahin, E., Kost-Alimova, M., Protopopov, A., Cadinanos, J., et al. (2011). "Telomerase reactivation reverses tissue degeneration in aged telomerase-deficient mice." Nature 469(7328):102-106. PubMed

Jazwinski, S. M. (1990). "Aging and senescence of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Mol Microbiol 4(3):337-343. PubMed

Jazwinski, S. M. (2001). "New clues to old yeast." Mech Ageing Dev 122(9):865-882. PubMed

Jazwinski, S. M. (2005). "Yeast longevity and aging--the mitochondrial connection." Mech Ageing Dev 126(2):243-248. PubMed

Jena, B. S., Nayak, S. B., and Patnaik, B. K. (2002). "Age-related effect of aluminium on the catalase activities of the brains of two species of poikilothermic vertebrates." Gerontology 48(1):34-38. PubMed

Jeyapalan, J. C., and Sedivy, J. M. (2008). "Cellular senescence and organismal aging." Mech Ageing Dev 129(7-8):467-474. PubMed

Jiang, X. R., Jimenez, G., Chang, E., Frolkis, M., Kusler, B., Sage, M., Beeche, M., Bodnar, A. G., Wahl, G. M., Tlsty, T. D., et al. (1999). "Telomerase expression in human somatic cells does not induce changes associated with a transformed phenotype." Nat Genet 21(1):111-114. PubMed

Johnson, T. E., Mitchell, D. H., Kline, S., Kemal, R., and Foy, J. (1984). "Arresting development arrests aging in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans." Mech Ageing Dev 28(1):23-40. PubMed

Johnson, T. E. (1990). "Increased life-span of age-1 mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans and lower Gompertz rate of aging." Science 249(4971):908-912. PubMed

Johnson, F. B., Sinclair, D. A., and Guarente, L. (1999). "Molecular biology of aging." Cell 96(2):291-302. PubMed

Johnson, T. E. (2002). "A personal retrospective on the genetics of aging." Biogerontology 3(1-2):7-12. PubMed

Jolly, C. A., Muthukumar, A., Avula, C. P., Troyer, D., and Fernandes, G. (2001). "Life span is prolonged in food-restricted autoimmune-prone (NZB x NZW)F(1) mice fed a diet enriched with (n-3) fatty acids." J Nutr 131(10):2753-2760. PubMed

Juhasz, G., Erdi, B., Sass, M., and Neufeld, T. P. (2007). "Atg7-dependent autophagy promotes neuronal health, stress tolerance, and longevity but is dispensable for metamorphosis in Drosophila." Genes Dev 21(23):3061-3066. PubMed

Jurgens, K. D., and Prothero, J. (1987). "Scaling of maximal lifespan in bats." Comp Biochem Physiol A 88(2):361-367. PubMed

Jurk, D., Wang, C., Miwa, S., Maddick, M., Korolchuk, V., Tsolou, A., Gonos, E. S., Thrasivoulou, C., Saffrey, M. J., Cameron, K., et al. (2012). "Postmitotic neurons develop a p21-dependent senescence-like phenotype driven by a DNA damage response." Aging Cell 11(6):996-1004. PubMed

Kakuo, S., Asaoka, K., and Ide, T. (1999). "Human is a unique species among primates in terms of telomere length." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 263(2):308-314. PubMed

Kamada, Y., Yoshino, K., Kondo, C., Kawamata, T., Oshiro, N., Yonezawa, K., and Ohsumi, Y. (2010). "Tor directly controls the Atg1 kinase complex to regulate autophagy." Mol Cell Biol 30(4):1049-1058. PubMed

Kammori, M., Nakamura, K. I., Kawahara, M., Mimura, Y., Kaminishi, M., and Takubo, K. (2002). "Telomere shortening with aging in human thyroid and parathyroid tissue." Exp Gerontol 37(4):513-521. PubMed

Kanungo, M. S. (1994). Genes and Aging. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Kapahi, P., Boulton, M. E., and Kirkwood, T. B. (1999). "Positive correlation between mammalian life span and cellular resistance to stress." Free Radic Biol Med 26(5-6):495-500. PubMed

Kaplan, H. S., and Robson, A. J. (2002). "The emergence of humans: the coevolution of intelligence and longevity with intergenerational transfers." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(15):10221-10226. PubMed

Kara, T. C. (1994). "Ageing in amphibians." Gerontology 40(2-4):161-173. PubMed

Karakashian, S. J., Lanners, H. N., and Rudzinska, M. A. (1984). "Cellular and clonal aging in the suctorian protozoan Tokophrya infusionum." Mech Ageing Dev 26(2-3):217-229. PubMed

Karasek, M. (2004). "Melatonin, human aging, and age-related diseases." Exp Gerontol 39(11-12):1723-1729. PubMed

Karatza, C., Stein, W. D., and Shall, S. (1984). "Kinetics of in vitro ageing of mouse embryo fibroblasts." J Cell Sci 65:163-175. PubMed

Karlseder, J., Broccoli, D., Dai, Y., Hardy, S., and de Lange, T. (1999). "p53- and ATM-dependent apoptosis induced by telomeres lacking TRF2." Science 283(5406):1321-1325. PubMed

Karlseder, J., Smogorzewska, A., and de Lange, T. (2002). "Senescence induced by altered telomere state, not telomere loss." Science 295(5564):2446-2449. PubMed

Kay, M. A. (2011). "State-of-the-art gene-based therapies: the road ahead." Nat Rev Genet 12(5):316-328. PubMed

Kealy, R. D., Lawler, D. F., Ballam, J. M., Mantz, S. L., Biery, D. N., Greeley, E. H., Lust, G., Segre, M., Smith, G. K., and Stowe, H. D. (2002). "Effects of diet restriction on life span and age-related changes in dogs." J Am Vet Med Assoc 220(9):1315-1320. PubMed

Keaney, M., and Gems, D. (2003). "No increase in lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans upon treatment with the superoxide dismutase mimetic EUK-8." Free Radic Biol Med 34(2):277-282. PubMed

Keaney, M., Matthijssens, F., Sharpe, M., Vanfleteren, J., and Gems, D. (2004). "Superoxide dismutase mimetics elevate superoxide dismutase activity in vivo but do not retard aging in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans." Free Radic Biol Med 37(2):239-250. PubMed

Kenyon, C. J. (2010). "The genetics of ageing." Nature 464(7288):504-512. PubMed

Keyes, W. M., Wu, Y., Vogel, H., Guo, X., Lowe, S. W., and Mills, A. A. (2005). "p63 deficiency activates a program of cellular senescence and leads to accelerated aging." Genes Dev 19(17):1986-1999. PubMed

Khaidakov, M., Heflich, R. H., Manjanatha, M. G., Myers, M. B., and Aidoo, A. (2003). "Accumulation of point mutations in mitochondrial DNA of aging mice." Mutat Res 526(1-2):1-7. PubMed

Khansari, D. N., and Gustad, T. (1991). "Effects of long-term, low-dose growth hormone therapy on immune function and life expectancy of mice." Mech Ageing Dev 57(1):87-100. PubMed

Khaw, K. T., Wareham, N., Bingham, S., Welch, A., Luben, R., and Day, N. (2008). "Combined impact of health behaviours and mortality in men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study." PLoS Med 5(1):e12. PubMed

Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Preacher, K. J., MacCallum, R. C., Atkinson, C., Malarkey, W. B., and Glaser, R. (2003). "Chronic stress and age-related increases in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(15):9090-9095. PubMed

Kilian, A., Bowtell, D. D., Abud, H. E., Hime, G. R., Venter, D. J., Keese, P. K., Duncan, E. L., Reddel, R. R., and Jefferson, R. A. (1997). "Isolation of a candidate human telomerase catalytic subunit gene, which reveals complex splicing patterns in different cell types." Hum Mol Genet 6(12):2011-2019. PubMed

Kill, I. R., Faragher, R. G., Lawrence, K., and Shall, S. (1994). "The expression of proliferation-dependent antigens during the lifespan of normal and progeroid human fibroblasts in culture." J Cell Sci 107 ( Pt 2):571-579. PubMed

Kim, H., You, S., Farris, J., Kong, B. W., Christman, S. A., Foster, L. K., and Foster, D. N. (2002). "Expression profiles of p53-, p16(INK4a)-, and telomere-regulating genes in replicative senescent primary human, mouse, and chicken fibroblast cells." Exp Cell Res 272(2):199-208. PubMed

Kim, E. B., Fang, X., Fushan, A. A., Huang, Z., Lobanov, A. V., Han, L., Marino, S. M., Sun, X., Turanov, A. A., Yang, P., et al. (2011). "Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat." Nature 479(7372):223-227. PubMed

King, D. E., Mainous, A. G., 3rd, and Geesey, M. E. (2007). "Turning back the clock: adopting a healthy lifestyle in middle age." Am J Med 120(7):598-603. PubMed

Kipling, D., and Cooke, H. J. (1990). "Hypervariable ultra-long telomeres in mice." Nature 347(6291):400-402. PubMed

Kirkwood, T. B. (1977). "Evolution of ageing." Nature 270(5635):301-304. PubMed

Kirkwood, T. B., and Austad, S. N. (2000). "Why do we age?" Nature 408(6809):233-238. PubMed

Kirkwood, T. B. (2005). "Understanding the odd science of aging." Cell 120(4):437-447. PubMed

Kitano, H. (2002). "Computational systems biology." Nature 420(6912):206-210. PubMed

Kiviniemi, T. O., Saraste, A., Toikka, J. O., Saraste, M., Raitakari, O. T., Parkka, J. P., Lehtimaki, T., Hartiala, J. J., Viikari, J., and Koskenvuo, J. W. (2007). "A moderate dose of red wine, but not de-alcoholized red wine increases coronary flow reserve." Atherosclerosis  PubMed

Kiyono, T., Foster, S. A., Koop, J. I., McDougall, J. K., Galloway, D. A., and Klingelhutz, A. J. (1998). "Both Rb/p16INK4a inactivation and telomerase activity are required to immortalize human epithelial cells." Nature 396(6706):84-88. PubMed

Klapper, W., Kuhne, K., Singh, K. K., Heidorn, K., Parwaresch, R., and Krupp, G. (1998). "Longevity of lobsters is linked to ubiquitous telomerase expression." FEBS Lett 439(1-2):143-146. PubMed

Klass, M., and Hirsh, D. (1976). "Non-ageing developmental variant of Caenorhabditis elegans." Nature 260(5551):523-525. PubMed

Kleiber, M. (1975). "Metabolic turnover rate: a physiological meaning of the metabolic rate per unit body weight." J Theor Biol 53(1):199-204. PubMed

Knight, S., Vulliamy, T., Copplestone, A., Gluckman, E., Mason, P., and Dokal, I. (1998). "Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) Registry: identification of new features of DC." Br J Haematol 103(4):990-996. PubMed

Knowler, W. C., Barrett-Connor, E., Fowler, S. E., Hamman, R. F., Lachin, J. M., Walker, E. A., and Nathan, D. M. (2002). "Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin." N Engl J Med 346(6):393-403. PubMed

Ko, L. J., and Prives, C. (1996). "p53: puzzle and paradigm." Genes Dev 10(9):1054-1072. PubMed

Kohn, D. B., Bauer, G., Rice, C. R., Rothschild, J. C., Carbonaro, D. A., Valdez, P., Hao, Q., Zhou, C., Bahner, I., Kearns, K., et al. (1999). "A clinical trial of retroviral-mediated transfer of a rev-responsive element decoy gene into CD34(+) cells from the bone marrow of human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected children." Blood 94(1):368-371. PubMed

Kondratov, R. V. (2007). "A role of the circadian system and circadian proteins in aging." Ageing Res Rev 6(1):12-27. PubMed

Kopp, P. (1998). "Resveratrol, a phytoestrogen found in red wine. A possible explanation for the conundrum of the 'French paradox'?" Eur J Endocrinol 138(6):619-620. PubMed

Kowald, A., and Kirkwood, T. B. (1994). "Towards a network theory of ageing: a model combining the free radical theory and the protein error theory." J Theor Biol 168(1):75-94. PubMed

Krause, D. S., Theise, N. D., Collector, M. I., Henegariu, O., Hwang, S., Gardner, R., Neutzel, S., and Sharkis, S. J. (2001). "Multi-organ, multi-lineage engraftment by a single bone marrow-derived stem cell." Cell 105(3):369-377. PubMed

Krishnamurthy, J., Ramsey, M. R., Ligon, K. L., Torrice, C., Koh, A., Bonner-Weir, S., and Sharpless, N. E. (2006). "p16INK4a induces an age-dependent decline in islet regenerative potential." Nature 443(7110):453-457. PubMed

Krzisnik, C., Kolacio, Z., and Battelino, T. (1999). "The "Little People" of the island of Krk - Revisited. Etiology of hypopituitarism revealed." J Endocr Genet 1(1):9-19.

Ku, H. H., Brunk, U. T., and Sohal, R. S. (1993). "Relationship between mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and longevity of mammalian species." Free Radic Biol Med 15(6):621-627. PubMed

Kubota, C., Yamakuchi, H., Todoroki, J., Mizoshita, K., Tabara, N., Barber, M., and Yang, X. (2000). "Six cloned calves produced from adult fibroblast cells after long-term culture." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(3):990-995. PubMed

Kuilman, T., Michaloglou, C., Vredeveld, L. C., Douma, S., van Doorn, R., Desmet, C. J., Aarden, L. A., Mooi, W. J., and Peeper, D. S. (2008). "Oncogene-induced senescence relayed by an interleukin-dependent inflammatory network." Cell 133(6):1019-1031. PubMed

Kujoth, G. C., Hiona, A., Pugh, T. D., Someya, S., Panzer, K., Wohlgemuth, S. E., Hofer, T., Seo, A. Y., Sullivan, R., Jobling, W. A., et al. (2005). "Mitochondrial DNA mutations, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in mammalian aging." Science 309(5733):481-484. PubMed

Kulju, K. S., and Lehman, J. M. (1995). "Increased p53 protein associated with aging in human diploid fibroblasts." Exp Cell Res 217(2):336-345. PubMed

Kuro-o, M., Matsumura, Y., Aizawa, H., Kawaguchi, H., Suga, T., Utsugi, T., Ohyama, Y., Kurabayashi, M., Kaname, T., Kume, E., et al. (1997). "Mutation of the mouse klotho gene leads to a syndrome resembling ageing." Nature 390(6655):45-51. PubMed

Kurosu, H., Yamamoto, M., Clark, J. D., Pastor, J. V., Nandi, A., Gurnani, P., McGuinness, O. P., Chikuda, H., Yamaguchi, M., Kawaguchi, H., et al. (2005). "Suppression of aging in mice by the hormone Klotho." Science 309(5742):1829-1833. PubMed

Kuruvilla, F. G., Shamji, A. F., Sternson, S. M., Hergenrother, P. J., and Schreiber, S. L. (2002). "Dissecting glucose signalling with diversity-oriented synthesis and small-molecule microarrays." Nature 416(6881):653-657. PubMed

Kurz, D. J., Decary, S., Hong, Y., and Erusalimsky, J. D. (2000). "Senescence-associated (beta)-galactosidase reflects an increase in lysosomal mass during replicative ageing of human endothelial cells." J Cell Sci 113 ( Pt 20):3613-3622. PubMed

Kurzweil, R., and Grossman, T. (2004). Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever. Rodale, Emmaus, PA.

Kwon, Y. W., Masutani, H., Nakamura, H., Ishii, Y., and Yodoi, J. (2003). "Redox regulation of cell growth and cell death." Biol Chem 384(7):991-996. PubMed

Lagouge, M., Argmann, C., Gerhart-Hines, Z., Meziane, H., Lerin, C., Daussin, F., Messadeq, N., Milne, J., Lambert, P., Elliott, P., et al. (2006). "Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha." Cell 127(6):1109-1122. PubMed

Lakdawalla, D. N., Sun, E. C., Jena, A. B., Reyes, C. M., Goldman, D. P., and Philipson, T. J. (2010). "An economic evaluation of the war on cancer." J Health Econ 29(3):333-346. PubMed

Lakowski, B., and Hekimi, S. (1996). "Determination of life-span in Caenorhabditis elegans by four clock genes." Science 272(5264):1010-1013. PubMed

Lambert, A. J., Boysen, H. M., Buckingham, J. A., Yang, T., Podlutsky, A., Austad, S. N., Kunz, T. H., Buffenstein, R., and Brand, M. D. (2007). "Low rates of hydrogen peroxide production by isolated heart mitochondria associate with long maximum lifespan in vertebrate homeotherms." Aging Cell 6(5):607-618. PubMed

Lane, I. W., and Comac, L. (1992). Sharks Don't Get Cancer. Avery Penguin Putnam, New York.

Lanner, R. M., and Connor, K. F. (2001). "Does bristlecone pine senesce?" Exp Gerontol 36(4-6):675-685. PubMed

Lanza, R. P., Cibelli, J. B., and West, M. D. (1999). "Human therapeutic cloning." Nat Med 5(9):975-977. PubMed

Lanza, R. P., Cibelli, J. B., Blackwell, C., Cristofalo, V. J., Francis, M. K., Baerlocher, G. M., Mak, J., Schertzer, M., Chavez, E. A., Sawyer, N., et al. (2000). "Extension of cell life-span and telomere length in animals cloned from senescent somatic cells." Science 288(5466):665-669. PubMed

Lapasset, L., Milhavet, O., Prieur, A., Besnard, E., Babled, A., Ait-Hamou, N., Leschik, J., Pellestor, F., Ramirez, J. M., De Vos, J., et al. (2011). "Rejuvenating senescent and centenarian human cells by reprogramming through the pluripotent state." Genes Dev 25(21):2248-2253. PubMed

Lapointe, J., and Hekimi, S. (2010). "When a theory of aging ages badly." Cell Mol Life Sci 67(1):1-8. PubMed

Laron, Z. (2005). "Do deficiencies in growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) shorten or prolong longevity?" Mech Ageing Dev 126(2):305-307. PubMed

Larsen, P. L. (1993). "Aging and resistance to oxidative damage in Caenorhabditis elegans." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(19):8905-8909. PubMed

Larsson, N. G. (2010). "Somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in mammalian aging." Annu Rev Biochem 79:683-706. PubMed

Le Bourg, E. (2001). "A mini-review of the evolutionary theories of aging. Is it the time to accept them?" Demographic Research 4(1)

Leduc, P. R., Wong, M. S., Ferreira, P. M., Groff, R. E., Haslinger, K., Koonce, M. P., Lee, W. Y., Love, J. C., McCammon, J. A., Monteiro-Riviere, N. A., et al. (2007). "Towards an in vivo biologically inspired nanofactory." Nat Nanotechnol 2(1):3-7. PubMed

Lee, H. W., Blasco, M. A., Gottlieb, G. J., Horner, J. W., 2nd, Greider, C. W., and DePinho, R. A. (1998). "Essential role of mouse telomerase in highly proliferative organs." Nature 392(6676):569-574. PubMed

Lee, C. K., Klopp, R. G., Weindruch, R., and Prolla, T. A. (1999). "Gene expression profile of aging and its retardation by caloric restriction." Science 285(5432):1390-1393. PubMed

Lee, R. D. (2003). "Rethinking the evolutionary theory of aging: transfers, not births, shape senescence in social species." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(16):9637-9642. PubMed

Lee, S., and Schmitt, C. A. (2003). "Chemotherapy response and resistance." Curr Opin Genet Dev 13(1):90-96. PubMed

Lee, J. W., Beebe, K., Nangle, L. A., Jang, J., Longo-Guess, C. M., Cook, S. A., Davisson, M. T., Sundberg, J. P., Schimmel, P., and Ackerman, S. L. (2006). "Editing-defective tRNA synthetase causes protein misfolding and neurodegeneration." Nature 443(7107):50-55. PubMed

Lees, E. (1995). "Cyclin dependent kinase regulation." Curr Opin Cell Biol 7(6):773-780. PubMed

Li, Y., and de Magalhaes, J. P. (2013). "Accelerated protein evolution analysis reveals genes and pathways associated with the evolution of mammalian longevity." Age (Dordr) 35(2):301-314. PubMed

Liang, H., Masoro, E. J., Nelson, J. F., Strong, R., McMahan, C. A., and Richardson, A. (2003). "Genetic mouse models of extended lifespan." Exp Gerontol 38(11-12):1353-1364. PubMed

Liang, S., Mele, J., Wu, Y., Buffenstein, R., and Hornsby, P. J. (2010). "Resistance to experimental tumorigenesis in cells of a long-lived mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)." Aging Cell 9(4):626-635. PubMed

Lightowlers, R. N., Jacobs, H. T., and Kajander, O. A. (1999). "Mitochondrial DNA--all things bad?" Trends Genet 15(3):91-93. PubMed

Lin, Y. J., Seroude, L., and Benzer, S. (1998). "Extended life-span and stress resistance in the Drosophila mutant methuselah." Science 282(5390):943-946. PubMed

Lin, S. J., Defossez, P. A., and Guarente, L. (2000). "Requirement of NAD and SIR2 for life-span extension by calorie restriction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Science 289(5487):2126-2128. PubMed

Lin, K., Hsin, H., Libina, N., and Kenyon, C. (2001). "Regulation of the Caenorhabditis elegans longevity protein DAF-16 by insulin/IGF-1 and germline signaling." Nat Genet 28(2):139-145. PubMed

Lindsey, J., McGill, N. I., Lindsey, L. A., Green, D. K., and Cooke, H. J. (1991). "In vivo loss of telomeric repeats with age in humans." Mutat Res 256(1):45-48. PubMed

Lindstedt, S. L., and Calder, W. A. (1981). "Body size, physiological time, and longevity of homeothermic animals." Q Rev Biol 56(1):1-16.

Linke, S. P., Sengupta, S., Khabie, N., Jeffries, B. A., Buchhop, S., Miska, S., Henning, W., Pedeux, R., Wang, X. W., Hofseth, L. J., et al. (2003). "p53 interacts with hRAD51 and hRAD54, and directly modulates homologous recombination." Cancer Res 63(10):2596-2605. PubMed

Linnane, A. W., Marzuki, S., Ozawa, T., and Tanaka, M. (1989). "Mitochondrial DNA mutations as an important contributor to ageing and degenerative diseases." Lancet 1(8639):642-645. PubMed

Lio, D., Scola, L., Crivello, A., Colonna-Romano, G., Candore, G., Bonafe, M., Cavallone, L., Marchegiani, F., Olivieri, F., Franceschi, C., et al. (2003). "Inflammation, genetics, and longevity: further studies on the protective effects in men of IL-10 -1082 promoter SNP and its interaction with TNF-alpha -308 promoter SNP." J Med Genet 40(4):296-299. PubMed

Lipman, R. D., Smith, D. E., Bronson, R. T., and Blumberg, J. (1995). "Is late-life caloric restriction beneficial?" Aging (Milano) 7(2):136-139. PubMed

Lipman, R. D., Bronson, R. T., Wu, D., Smith, D. E., Prior, R., Cao, G., Han, S. N., Martin, K. R., Meydani, S. N., and Meydani, M. (1998). "Disease incidence and longevity are unaltered by dietary antioxidant supplementation initiated during middle age in C57BL/6 mice." Mech Ageing Dev 103(3):269-284. PubMed

Liu, V. W., Zhang, C., and Nagley, P. (1998). "Mutations in mitochondrial DNA accumulate differentially in three different human tissues during ageing." Nucleic Acids Res 26(5):1268-1275. PubMed

Liu, S., Qu, Y., Stewart, T. J., Howard, M. J., Chakrabortty, S., Holekamp, T. F., and McDonald, J. W. (2000). "Embryonic stem cells differentiate into oligodendrocytes and myelinate in culture and after spinal cord transplantation." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(11):6126-6131. PubMed

Liu, X., Jiang, N., Hughes, B., Bigras, E., Shoubridge, E., and Hekimi, S. (2005). "Evolutionary conservation of the clk-1-dependent mechanism of longevity: loss of mclk1 increases cellular fitness and lifespan in mice." Genes Dev 19(20):2424-2434. PubMed

Liu, H., Bravata, D. M., Olkin, I., Nayak, S., Roberts, B., Garber, A. M., and Hoffman, A. R. (2007). "Systematic review: the safety and efficacy of growth hormone in the healthy elderly." Ann Intern Med 146(2):104-115. PubMed

Loffredo, F. S., Steinhauser, M. L., Jay, S. M., Gannon, J., Pancoast, J. R., Yalamanchi, P., Sinha, M., Dall'osso, C., Khong, D., Shadrach, J. L., et al. (2013). "Growth Differentiation Factor 11 Is a Circulating Factor that Reverses Age-Related Cardiac Hypertrophy." Cell 153(4):828-839. PubMed

Longo, V. D. (1999). "Mutations in signal transduction proteins increase stress resistance and longevity in yeast, nematodes, fruit flies, and mammalian neuronal cells." Neurobiol Aging 20(5):479-486. PubMed

Longo, V. D., and Fabrizio, P. (2002). "Regulation of longevity and stress resistance: a molecular strategy conserved from yeast to humans?" Cell Mol Life Sci 59(6):903-908. PubMed

Longo, V. D., Mitteldorf, J., and Skulachev, V. P. (2005). "Programmed and altruistic ageing." Nat Rev Genet 6(11):866-872. PubMed

Lopez-Otin, C., Blasco, M. A., Partridge, L., Serrano, M., and Kroemer, G. (2013). "The hallmarks of aging." Cell 153(6):1194-1217. PubMed

Lorenzini, A., Tresini, M., Austad, S. N., and Cristofalo, V. J. (2005). "Cellular replicative capacity correlates primarily with species body mass not longevity." Mech Ageing Dev 126(10):1130-1133. PubMed

Lowell, J. E., and Pillus, L. (1998). "Telomere tales: chromatin, telomerase and telomere function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Cell Mol Life Sci 54(1):32-49. PubMed

Lu, T., Pan, Y., Kao, S. Y., Li, C., Kohane, I., Chan, J., and Yankner, B. A. (2004). "Gene regulation and DNA damage in the ageing human brain." Nature 429(6994):883-891. PubMed

Lucke, J. C., Diedrichs, P. C., Partridge, B., and Hall, W. D. (2009). "Anticipating the anti-ageing pill. Lessons from the history of the oral contraceptive pill and hormone replacement therapy." EMBO Rep 10(2):108-113. PubMed

Luckinbill, L. S., and Clare, M. J. (1985). "Selection for life span in Drosophila melanogaster." Heredity 55 ( Pt 1):9-18. PubMed

Lundblad, V., and Szostak, J. W. (1989). "A mutant with a defect in telomere elongation leads to senescence in yeast." Cell 57(4):633-643. PubMed

Lutz, P. L., Prentice, H. M., and Milton, S. L. (2003). "Is turtle longevity linked to enhanced mechanisms for surviving brain anoxia and reoxygenation?" Exp Gerontol 38(7):797-800. PubMed

Ly, D. H., Lockhart, D. J., Lerner, R. A., and Schultz, P. G. (2000). "Mitotic misregulation and human aging." Science 287(5462):2486-2492. PubMed

Lyman, C. P., O'Brien, R. C., Greene, G. C., and Papafrangos, E. D. (1981). "Hibernation and longevity in the Turkish hamster Mesocricetus brandti." Science 212(4495):668-670. PubMed

Lyon, J., and Gorner, P. (1995). Altered Fates: Gene Therapy and the Retooling of Human Life. W. W. Norton, New York.

MacArthur, R. H., and Wilson, E. O. (1967). The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Macera-Bloch, L., Houghton, J., Lenahan, M., Jha, K. K., and Ozer, H. L. (2002). "Termination of lifespan of SV40-transformed human fibroblasts in crisis is due to apoptosis." J Cell Physiol 190(3):332-344. PubMed

Maddison, D. R., and Schulz, K. S. (2004). "The Tree of Life Web Project." http://tolweb.org

Magalhaes, J. P. (1999). "Post-mortem lethal genes." Longevity Report (69):6.

Majhi, S., Jena, B. S., and Patnaik, B. K. (2000). "Effect of age on lipid peroxides, lipofuscin and ascorbic acid contents of the lungs of male garden lizard." Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 126(3):293-298. PubMed

Makarov, V. L., Hirose, Y., and Langmore, J. P. (1997). "Long G tails at both ends of human chromosomes suggest a C strand degradation mechanism for telomere shortening." Cell 88(5):657-666. PubMed

Mangel, M., and Abrahams, M. V. (2001). "Age and longevity in fish, with consideration of the ferox trout." Exp Gerontol 36(4-6):765-790. PubMed

Mantell, L. L., and Greider, C. W. (1994). "Telomerase activity in germline and embryonic cells of Xenopus." Embo J 13(13):3211-3217. PubMed

Marden, J. H., Rogina, B., Montooth, K. L., and Helfand, S. L. (2003). "Conditional tradeoffs between aging and organismal performance of Indy long-lived mutant flies." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(6):3369-3373. PubMed

Marrone, A., and Mason, P. J. (2003). "Dyskeratosis congenita." Cell Mol Life Sci 60(3):507-517. PubMed

Marsili, S., Salganik, R. I., Albright, C. D., Freel, C. D., Johnsen, S., Peiffer, R. L., and Costello, M. J. (2004). "Cataract formation in a strain of rats selected for high oxidative stress." Exp Eye Res 79(5):595-612. PubMed

Martens, U. M., Chavez, E. A., Poon, S. S., Schmoor, C., and Lansdorp, P. M. (2000). "Accumulation of short telomeres in human fibroblasts prior to replicative senescence." Exp Cell Res 256(1):291-299. PubMed

Martin, G. M. (1978). "Genetic syndromes in man with potential relevance to the pathobiology of aging." Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser 14(1):5-39. PubMed

Martin, G. M. (1982). "Syndromes of accelerated aging." Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 60:241-247. PubMed

Martin, G. M., Smith, A. C., Ketterer, D. J., Ogburn, C. E., and Disteche, C. M. (1985). "Increased chromosomal aberrations in first metaphases of cells isolated from the kidneys of aged mice." Isr J Med Sci 21(3):296-301. PubMed

Martin, G. M., Austad, S. N., and Johnson, T. E. (1996). "Genetic analysis of ageing: role of oxidative damage and environmental stresses." Nat Genet 13(1):25-34. PubMed

Martin, G. M., and Oshima, J. (2000). "Lessons from human progeroid syndromes." Nature 408(6809):263-266. PubMed

Martin, K., Potten, C. S., and Kirkwood, T. B. (2000). "Age-related changes in irradiation-induced apoptosis and expression of p21 and p53 in crypt stem cells of murine intestine." Ann N Y Acad Sci 908:315-318. PubMed

Martin, J. A., and Buckwalter, J. A. (2002). "Human chondrocyte senescence and osteoarthritis." Biorheology 39(1-2):145-152. PubMed

Martinez, D. E. (1998). "Mortality patterns suggest lack of senescence in hydra." Exp Gerontol 33(3):217-225. PubMed

Mason, P. J. (2003). "Stem cells, telomerase and dyskeratosis congenita." Bioessays 25(2):126-133. PubMed

Mason, J. B., Cargill, S. L., Anderson, G. B., and Carey, J. R. (2009). "Transplantation of young ovaries to old mice increased life span in transplant recipients." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 64(12):1207-1211. PubMed

Masoro, E. J., McCarter, R. J., Katz, M. S., and McMahan, C. A. (1992). "Dietary restriction alters characteristics of glucose fuel use." J Gerontol 47(6):B202-208. PubMed

Masoro, E. J. (2005). "Overview of caloric restriction and ageing." Mech Ageing Dev 126(9):913-922. PubMed

Masutomi, K., Yu, E. Y., Khurts, S., Ben-Porath, I., Currier, J. L., Metz, G. B., Brooks, M. W., Kaneko, S., Murakami, S., DeCaprio, J. A., et al. (2003). "Telomerase maintains telomere structure in normal human cells." Cell 114(2):241-253. PubMed

Matheu, A., Pantoja, C., Efeyan, A., Criado, L. M., Martin-Caballero, J., Flores, J. M., Klatt, P., and Serrano, M. (2004). "Increased gene dosage of Ink4a/Arf results in cancer resistance and normal aging." Genes Dev 18(22):2736-2746. PubMed

Matheu, A., Maraver, A., Klatt, P., Flores, I., Garcia-Cao, I., Borras, C., Flores, J. M., Vina, J., Blasco, M. A., and Serrano, M. (2007). "Delayed ageing through damage protection by the Arf/p53 pathway." Nature 448(7151):375-379. PubMed

Mathon, N. F., and Lloyd, A. C. (2001). "Cell senescence and cancer." Nat Rev Cancer 1(3):203-213. PubMed

Mathon, N. F., Malcolm, D. S., Harrisingh, M. C., Cheng, L., and Lloyd, A. C. (2001). "Lack of replicative senescence in normal rodent glia." Science 291(5505):872-875. PubMed

Matsumura, T. (1980). "Multinucleation and polyploidization of aging human cells in culture." Adv Exp Med Biol 129:31-38. PubMed

Matsuura, S., Tauchi, H., Nakamura, A., Kondo, N., Sakamoto, S., Endo, S., Smeets, D., Solder, B., Belohradsky, B. H., Der Kaloustian, V. M., et al. (1998). "Positional cloning of the gene for Nijmegen breakage syndrome." Nat Genet 19(2):179-181. PubMed

Mattison, J. A., Roth, G. S., Beasley, T. M., Tilmont, E. M., Handy, A. M., Herbert, R. L., Longo, D. L., Allison, D. B., Young, J. E., Bryant, M., et al. (2012). "Impact of caloric restriction on health and survival in rhesus monkeys from the NIA study." Nature 489(7415):318-321. PubMed

Mattson, M. P., Duan, W., and Maswood, N. (2002). "How does the brain control lifespan?" Ageing Res Rev 1(2):155-165. PubMed

Mattson, M. P., Cutler, R. G., and Camandola, S. (2007). "Energy intake and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis." Neuromolecular Med 9(1):17-20. PubMed

McCarter, R. J., and Palmer, J. (1992). "Energy metabolism and aging: a lifelong study of Fischer 344 rats." Am J Physiol 263(3 Pt 1):E448-452. PubMed

McCay, C. M., Crowell, M. F., and Maynard, L. A. (1935). "The effect of retarded growth upon length of the life span and upon the ultimate body size." J Nutrit 10(1):63-75.

McClintock, B. (1941). "The stability of broken ends of chromosomes in Zea mays." Genetics 26:234-282.

McConnell, B. B., Starborg, M., Brookes, S., and Peters, G. (1998). "Inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases induce features of replicative senescence in early passage human diploid fibroblasts." Curr Biol 8(6):351-354. PubMed

McCormick, A., and Campisi, J. (1991). "Cellular aging and senescence." Curr Opin Cell Biol 3(2):230-234. PubMed

McEachern, M. J., and Blackburn, E. H. (1996). "Cap-prevented recombination between terminal telomeric repeat arrays (telomere CPR) maintains telomeres in Kluyveromyces lactis lacking telomerase." Genes Dev 10(14):1822-1834. PubMed

McElwee, J. J., Schuster, E., Blanc, E., Piper, M. D., Thomas, J. H., Patel, D. S., Selman, C., Withers, D. J., Thornton, J. M., Partridge, L., et al. (2007). "Evolutionary conservation of regulated longevity assurance mechanisms." Genome Biol 8(7):R132. PubMed

McKinney, M. L., and McNamara, K. J. (1991). Heterochrony: The Evolution of Ontogeny. Plenum, New York.

Medawar, P. B. (1952). An Unsolved Problem of Biology. H. K. Lewis, London.

Medawar, P. (1955). "The definition and measurement of senescence." In: Ciba Foundation Colloquia on Ageing, Volume I, Wolstenholme, G. E. W. (ed.).  J. & A. Churchill, London, 4-15.

Medema, R. H., Herrera, R. E., Lam, F., and Weinberg, R. A. (1995). "Growth suppression by p16ink4 requires functional retinoblastoma protein." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(14):6289-6293. PubMed

Medvedev, Z. A. (1981). "On the immortality of the germ line: genetic and biochemical mechanism. A review." Mech Ageing Dev 17(4):331-359. PubMed

Medvedev, Z. A. (1990). "An attempt at a rational classification of theories of ageing." Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 65(3):375-398. PubMed

Melk, A., Kittikowit, W., Sandhu, I., Halloran, K. M., Grimm, P., Schmidt, B. M., and Halloran, P. F. (2003). "Cell senescence in rat kidneys in vivo increases with growth and age despite lack of telomere shortening." Kidney Int 63(6):2134-2143. PubMed

Melov, S., Ravenscroft, J., Malik, S., Gill, M. S., Walker, D. W., Clayton, P. E., Wallace, D. C., Malfroy, B., Doctrow, S. R., and Lithgow, G. J. (2000). "Extension of life-span with superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics." Science 289(5484):1567-1569. PubMed

Mendez, M. V., Stanley, A., Phillips, T., Murphy, M., Menzoian, J. O., and Park, H. Y. (1998). "Fibroblasts cultured from distal lower extremities in patients with venous reflux display cellular characteristics of senescence." J Vasc Surg 28(6):1040-1050. PubMed

Meyer, T. E., Kovacs, S. J., Ehsani, A. A., Klein, S., Holloszy, J. O., and Fontana, L. (2006). "Long-term caloric restriction ameliorates the decline in diastolic function in humans." J Am Coll Cardiol 47(2):398-402. PubMed

Meyne, J., Ratliff, R. L., and Moyzis, R. K. (1989). "Conservation of the human telomere sequence (TTAGGG)n among vertebrates." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86(18):7049-7053. PubMed

Migliaccio, E., Giorgio, M., Mele, S., Pelicci, G., Reboldi, P., Pandolfi, P. P., Lanfrancone, L., and Pelicci, P. G. (1999). "The p66shc adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response and life span in mammals." Nature 402(6759):309-313. PubMed

Miller, S. E., and Hadfield, M. G. (1990). "Developmental arrest during larval life and life-span extension in a marine mollusc." Science 248(4953):356-358.

Miller, R. A. (1999). "Kleemeier award lecture: are there genes for aging?" J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 54(7):B297-307. PubMed

Miller, J. K. (2001). "Escaping senescence: demographic data from the three-toed box turtle (Terrapene carolina triunguis)." Exp Gerontol 36(4-6):829-832. PubMed

Miller, R. A., Harper, J. M., Galecki, A., and Burke, D. T. (2002a). "Big mice die young: early life body weight predicts longevity in genetically heterogeneous mice." Aging Cell 1(1):22-29. PubMed

Miller, R. A., Harper, J. M., Dysko, R. C., Durkee, S. J., and Austad, S. N. (2002b). "Longer life spans and delayed maturation in wild-derived mice." Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 227(7):500-508. PubMed

Miller, R. A. (2005). "Genetic approaches to the study of aging." J Am Geriatr Soc 53(9 Suppl):S284-286. PubMed

Miller, R. A., Harrison, D. E., Astle, C. M., Baur, J. A., Boyd, A. R., de Cabo, R., Fernandez, E., Flurkey, K., Javors, M. A., Nelson, J. F., et al. (2011). "Rapamycin, but not resveratrol or simvastatin, extends life span of genetically heterogeneous mice." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 66(2):191-201. PubMed

Milne, J. C., Lambert, P. D., Schenk, S., Carney, D. P., Smith, J. J., Gagne, D. J., Jin, L., Boss, O., Perni, R. B., Vu, C. B., et al. (2007). "Small molecule activators of SIRT1 as therapeutics for the treatment of type 2 diabetes." Nature 450(7170):712-716. PubMed

Minamino, T., Miyauchi, H., Yoshida, T., Ishida, Y., Yoshida, H., and Komuro, I. (2002). "Endothelial cell senescence in human atherosclerosis: role of telomere in endothelial dysfunction." Circulation 105(13):1541-1544. PubMed

Minamino, T., Yoshida, T., Tateno, K., Miyauchi, H., Zou, Y., Toko, H., and Komuro, I. (2003). "Ras induces vascular smooth muscle cell senescence and inflammation in human atherosclerosis." Circulation 108(18):2264-2269. PubMed

Miskin, R., and Masos, T. (1997). "Transgenic mice overexpressing urokinase-type plasminogen activator in the brain exhibit reduced food consumption, body weight and size, and increased longevity." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 52(2):B118-124. PubMed

Mitsui, A., Hamuro, J., Nakamura, H., Kondo, N., Hirabayashi, Y., Ishizaki-Koizumi, S., Hirakawa, T., Inoue, T., and Yodoi, J. (2002). "Overexpression of human thioredoxin in transgenic mice controls oxidative stress and life span." Antioxid Redox Signal 4(4):693-696. PubMed

Miwa, S., Riyahi, K., Partridge, L., and Brand, M. D. (2004). "Lack of correlation between mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and life span in Drosophila." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1019:388-391. PubMed

Mizutani, K., Ikeda, K., and Yamori, Y. (2000). "Resveratrol inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and collagen synthesis activity in vascular smooth muscle cells from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 274(1):61-67. PubMed

Mobbs, C. V. (2004). "Not wisely but too well: aging as a cost of neuroendocrine activity." Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2004(35):pe33. PubMed

Mokni, M., Elkahoui, S., Limam, F., Amri, M., and Aouani, E. (2007). "Effect of resveratrol on antioxidant enzyme activities in the brain of healthy rat." Neurochem Res 32(6):981-987. PubMed

Molofsky, A. V., Slutsky, S. G., Joseph, N. M., He, S., Pardal, R., Krishnamurthy, J., Sharpless, N. E., and Morrison, S. J. (2006). "Increasing p16INK4a expression decreases forebrain progenitors and neurogenesis during ageing." Nature 443(7110):448-452. PubMed

Mondello, C., Petropoulou, C., Monti, D., Gonos, E. S., Franceschi, C., and Nuzzo, F. (1999). "Telomere length in fibroblasts and blood cells from healthy centenarians." Exp Cell Res 248(1):234-242. PubMed

Monroe, K. R., Murphy, S. P., Kolonel, L. N., and Pike, M. C. (2007). "Prospective study of grapefruit intake and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the Multiethnic Cohort Study." Br J Cancer 97(3):440-445. PubMed

Moore, J. (1981). "Asexual reproduction and environmental predictability in cestodes (Cyclopdyllidea: Taeniidae)." Evolution 35:723-741.

Moosmann, B., and Behl, C. (2008). "Mitochondrially encoded cysteine predicts animal lifespan." Aging Cell 7(1):32-46. PubMed

Morales, C. P., Holt, S. E., Ouellette, M., Kaur, K. J., Yan, Y., Wilson, K. S., White, M. A., Wright, W. E., and Shay, J. W. (1999). "Absence of cancer-associated changes in human fibroblasts immortalized with telomerase." Nat Genet 21(1):115-118. PubMed

Morgan, H., Beck, T., Blake, A., Gates, H., Adams, N., Debouzy, G., Leblanc, S., Lengger, C., Maier, H., Melvin, D., et al. (2010). "EuroPhenome: a repository for high-throughput mouse phenotyping data." Nucleic Acids Res 38(Database issue):D577-585. PubMed

Mori, A., Utsumi, K., Liu, J., and Hosokawa, M. (1998). "Oxidative damage in the senescence-accelerated mouse." Ann N Y Acad Sci 854:239-250. PubMed

Morimoto, R. I. (2006). "Stress, aging, and neurodegenerative disease." N Engl J Med 355(21):2254-2255. PubMed

Morimoto, R. I., and Cuervo, A. M. (2009). "Protein homeostasis and aging: taking care of proteins from the cradle to the grave." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 64(2):167-170. PubMed

Morley, J. F., Brignull, H. R., Weyers, J. J., and Morimoto, R. I. (2002). "The threshold for polyglutamine-expansion protein aggregation and cellular toxicity is dynamic and influenced by aging in Caenorhabditis elegans." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(16):10417-10422. PubMed

Morrison, S. J., Prowse, K. R., Ho, P., and Weissman, I. L. (1996). "Telomerase activity in hematopoietic cells is associated with self-renewal potential." Immunity 5(3):207-216. PubMed

Morrison, J. H., and Hof, P. R. (1997). "Life and death of neurons in the aging brain." Science 278(5337):412-419. PubMed

Moskovitz, J., Bar-Noy, S., Williams, W. M., Requena, J., Berlett, B. S., and Stadtman, E. R. (2001). "Methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrA) is a regulator of antioxidant defense and lifespan in mammals." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(23):12920-12925. PubMed

Motonaga, K., Itoh, M., Hachiya, Y., Endo, A., Kato, K., Ishikura, H., Saito, Y., Mori, S., Takashima, S., and Goto, Y. (2002). "Age related expression of Werner's syndrome protein in selected tissues and coexpression of transcription factors." J Clin Pathol 55(3):195-199. PubMed

Motta, M., Bennati, E., Vacante, M., Stanta, G., Cardillo, E., Malaguarnera, M., and Giarelli, L. (2010). "Autopsy reports in extreme longevity." Arch Gerontol Geriatr 50(1):48-50. PubMed

Moyzis, R. K., Buckingham, J. M., Cram, L. S., Dani, M., Deaven, L. L., Jones, M. D., Meyne, J., Ratliff, R. L., and Wu, J. R. (1988). "A highly conserved repetitive DNA sequence, (TTAGGG)n, present at the telomeres of human chromosomes." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85(18):6622-6626. PubMed

Muller, H. J. (1938). "The remaking of chromosomes." Collecting Net 13(8):182-198.

Munne-Bosch, S. (2008). "Do perennials really senesce?" Trends Plant Sci 13(5):216-220. PubMed

Munro, J., Steeghs, K., Morrison, V., Ireland, H., and Parkinson, E. K. (2001). "Human fibroblast replicative senescence can occur in the absence of extensive cell division and short telomeres." Oncogene 20(27):3541-3552. PubMed

Murakami, S., Tedesco, P. M., Cypser, J. R., and Johnson, T. E. (2000). "Molecular genetic mechanisms of life span manipulation in Caenorhabditis elegans." Ann N Y Acad Sci 908:40-49. PubMed

Murphree, A. L., and Benedict, W. F. (1984). "Retinoblastoma: clues to human oncogenesis." Science 223(4640):1028-1033. PubMed

Murphy, K. M., and Topel, R. H. (2006). "The value of health and longevity." Journal of Political Economy 114(5):871-904.

Nabholz, B., Glemin, S., and Galtier, N. (2008). "Strong variations of mitochondrial mutation rate across mammals--the longevity hypothesis." Mol Biol Evol 25(1):120-130. PubMed

Nair, K. S., Rizza, R. A., O'Brien, P., Dhatariya, K., Short, K. R., Nehra, A., Vittone, J. L., Klee, G. G., Basu, A., Basu, R., et al. (2006). "DHEA in elderly women and DHEA or testosterone in elderly men." N Engl J Med 355(16):1647-1659. PubMed

Nakamura, T. M., Morin, G. B., Chapman, K. B., Weinrich, S. L., Andrews, W. H., Lingner, J., Harley, C. B., and Cech, T. R. (1997). "Telomerase catalytic subunit homologs from fission yeast and human." Science 277(5328):955-959. PubMed

Nanney, D. L. (1974). "Aging and long-term temporal regulation in ciliated protozoa. A critical review." Mech Ageing Dev 3(2):81-105. PubMed

Napoli, C., Martin-Padura, I., de Nigris, F., Giorgio, M., Mansueto, G., Somma, P., Condorelli, M., Sica, G., De Rosa, G., and Pelicci, P. (2003). "Deletion of the p66Shc longevity gene reduces systemic and tissue oxidative stress, vascular cell apoptosis, and early atherogenesis in mice fed a high-fat diet." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(4):2112-2116. PubMed

Narayanan, L., Fritzell, J. A., Baker, S. M., Liskay, R. M., and Glazer, P. M. (1997). "Elevated levels of mutation in multiple tissues of mice deficient in the DNA mismatch repair gene Pms2." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(7):3122-3127. PubMed

Nathwani, A. C., Tuddenham, E. G., Rangarajan, S., Rosales, C., McIntosh, J., Linch, D. C., Chowdary, P., Riddell, A., Pie, A. J., Harrington, C., et al. (2011). "Adenovirus-associated virus vector-mediated gene transfer in hemophilia B." N Engl J Med 365(25):2357-2365. PubMed

Nemoto, S., and Finkel, T. (2002). "Redox regulation of forkhead proteins through a p66shc-dependent signaling pathway." Science 295(5564):2450-2452. PubMed

Nesse, R. M. (1988). "Life table tests of evolutionary theories of senescence." Exp Gerontol 23(6):445-453. PubMed

Neufeld, T. P. (2010). "TOR-dependent control of autophagy: biting the hand that feeds." Curr Opin Cell Biol 22(2):157-168. PubMed

Njajou, O. T., Cawthon, R. M., Damcott, C. M., Wu, S. H., Ott, S., Garant, M. J., Blackburn, E. H., Mitchell, B. D., Shuldiner, A. R., and Hsueh, W. C. (2007). "Telomere length is paternally inherited and is associated with parental lifespan." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(29):12135-12139. PubMed

Norddahl, G. L., Pronk, C. J., Wahlestedt, M., Sten, G., Nygren, J. M., Ugale, A., Sigvardsson, M., and Bryder, D. (2011). "Accumulating mitochondrial DNA mutations drive premature hematopoietic aging phenotypes distinct from physiological stem cell aging." Cell Stem Cell 8(5):499-510. PubMed

Nottebohm, F. (1989). "From bird song to neurogenesis." Sci Am 260(2):74-79. PubMed

Nussey, D. H., Froy, H., Lemaitre, J. F., Gaillard, J. M., and Austad, S. N. (2013). "Senescence in natural populations of animals: widespread evidence and its implications for bio-gerontology." Ageing Res Rev 12(1):214-225. PubMed

Nwosu, B. U., Nilsson, O., Mitchum, R. D., Jr., Coco, M., Barnes, K. M., and Baron, J. (2005). "Lack of telomere shortening with age in mouse resting zone chondrocytes." Horm Res 63(3):125-128. PubMed

Nystrom, T. (2002). "Translational fidelity, protein oxidation, and senescence: lessons from bacteria." Ageing Res Rev 1(4):693-703. PubMed

Oklejewicz, M., and Daan, S. (2002). "Enhanced longevity in tau mutant Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus." J Biol Rhythms 17(3):210-216. PubMed

Olovnikov, A. M. (1971). "[Principle of marginotomy in template synthesis of polynucleotides]." Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 201(6):1496-1499. PubMed

Olovnikov, A. M. (1973). "A theory of marginotomy. The incomplete copying of template margin in enzymic synthesis of polynucleotides and biological significance of the phenomenon." J Theor Biol 41(1):181-190. PubMed

Olshansky, S. J., Carnes, B. A., and Cassel, C. (1990). "In search of Methuselah: estimating the upper limits to human longevity." Science 250(4981):634-640. PubMed

Olshansky, S. J., Hayflick, L., and Carnes, B. A. (2002). "No truth to the fountain of youth." Sci Am 286(6):92-95. PubMed

Olshansky, S. J., Perry, D., Miller, R. A., and Butler, R. N. (2006). "In pursuit of the longevity dividend." The Scientist 20:28-36.

Olson, C. B. (1987). "A review of why and how we age: a defense of multifactorial aging." Mech Ageing Dev 41(1-2):1-28. PubMed

Olson, M. V., and Varki, A. (2003). "Sequencing the chimpanzee genome: insights into human evolution and disease." Nat Rev Genet 4(1):20-28. PubMed

Olsson, M., and Shine, R. (2002). "Growth to death in lizards." Evolution Int J Org Evolution 56(9):1867-1870. PubMed

Orgel, L. E. (1963). "The maintenance of the accuracy of protein synthesis and its relevance to ageing." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 49:517-521. PubMed

Orgel, L. E. (1973). "Ageing of clones of mammalian cells." Nature 243(5408):441-445. PubMed

Orlic, D., Kajstura, J., Chimenti, S., Jakoniuk, I., Anderson, S. M., Li, B., Pickel, J., McKay, R., Nadal-Ginard, B., Bodine, D. M., et al. (2001). "Bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium." Nature 410(6829):701-705. PubMed

Orr, W. C., and Sohal, R. S. (1994). "Extension of life-span by overexpression of superoxide dismutase and catalase in Drosophila melanogaster." Science 263(5150):1128-1130. PubMed

Orr, W. C., Mockett, R. J., Benes, J. J., and Sohal, R. S. (2003). "Effects of overexpression of copper-zinc and manganese superoxide dismutases, catalase, and thioredoxin reductase genes on longevity in Drosophila melanogaster." J Biol Chem 278(29):26418-26422. PubMed

Osborne, T. B., Mendel, L. B., and Fey, E. L. (1917). "The effect of retardation of growth upon the breeding period and duration of life in rats." Science 45:294-295.

Oshima, J., Campisi, J., Tannock, T. C., and Martin, G. M. (1995). "Regulation of c-fos expression in senescing Werner syndrome fibroblasts differs from that observed in senescing fibroblasts from normal donors." J Cell Physiol 162(2):277-283. PubMed

Osiewacz, H. D., and Borghouts, C. (2000). "Mitochondrial oxidative stress and aging in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina." Ann N Y Acad Sci 908:31-39. PubMed

Ottinger, M. A. (2001). "Quail and other short-lived birds." Exp Gerontol 36(4-6):859-868. PubMed

Outeiro, T. F., Kontopoulos, E., Altmann, S. M., Kufareva, I., Strathearn, K. E., Amore, A. M., Volk, C. B., Maxwell, M. M., Rochet, J. C., McLean, P. J., et al. (2007). "Sirtuin 2 inhibitors rescue alpha-synuclein-mediated toxicity in models of Parkinson's disease." Science 317(5837):516-519. PubMed

Overington, J. P., Al-Lazikani, B., and Hopkins, A. L. (2006). "How many drug targets are there?" Nat Rev Drug Discov 5(12):993-996. PubMed

Pan, C., Xue, B. H., Ellis, T. M., Peace, D. J., and Diaz, M. O. (1997). "Changes in telomerase activity and telomere length during human T lymphocyte senescence." Exp Cell Res 231(2):346-353. PubMed

Panda, S., Isbatan, A., and Adami, G. R. (2008). "Modification of the ATM/ATR directed DNA damage response state with aging and long after hepatocyte senescence induction in vivo." Mech Ageing Dev 129(6):332-340. PubMed

Paradis, V., Youssef, N., Dargere, D., Ba, N., Bonvoust, F., Deschatrette, J., and Bedossa, P. (2001). "Replicative senescence in normal liver, chronic hepatitis C, and hepatocellular carcinomas." Hum Pathol 32(3):327-332. PubMed

Park, W. Y., Hwang, C. I., Kang, M. J., Seo, J. Y., Chung, J. H., Kim, Y. S., Lee, J. H., Kim, H., Kim, K. A., Yoo, H. J., et al. (2001). "Gene profile of replicative senescence is different from progeria or elderly donor." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 282(4):934-939. PubMed

Park, S. Y., Murphy, S. P., Wilkens, L. R., Henderson, B. E., and Kolonel, L. N. (2011). "Multivitamin use and the risk of mortality and cancer incidence: the multiethnic cohort study." Am J Epidemiol 173(8):906-914. PubMed

Parker, S. T. (1990). "Why big brains are so rare: energy costs of intelligence and brain size in anthropoid primates." In: Language and Intelligence in Monkeys and Apes, Parker, S. T. and Gibson, K. R. (ed.).  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 129-156.

Parker, J. D., Parker, K. M., Sohal, B. H., Sohal, R. S., and Keller, L. (2004). "Decreased expression of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase 1 in ants with extreme lifespan." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(10):3486-3489. PubMed

Parkes, T. L., Elia, A. J., Dickinson, D., Hilliker, A. J., Phillips, J. P., and Boulianne, G. L. (1998). "Extension of Drosophila lifespan by overexpression of human SOD1 in motorneurons." Nat Genet 19(2):171-174. PubMed

Parrinello, S., Samper, E., Krtolica, A., Goldstein, J., Melov, S., and Campisi, J. (2003). "Oxygen sensitivity severely limits the replicative lifespan of murine fibroblasts." Nat Cell Biol 5(8):741-747. PubMed

Partridge, L., and Mangel, M. (1999). "Messages from mortality: the evolution of death rates in the old." Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14(11):438-442. PubMed

Partridge, L., and Gems, D. (2007). "Benchmarks for ageing studies." Nature 450(7167):165-167. PubMed

Patel, M. N., Knight, C. G., Karageorgi, C., and Leroi, A. M. (2002). "Evolution of germ-line signals that regulate growth and aging in nematodes." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(2):769-774. PubMed

Patnaik, B. K. (1994). "Ageing in reptiles." Gerontology 40(2-4):200-220. PubMed

Pearl, R. (1928). The Rate of Living. Knopf, New York.

Pearson, K. J., Baur, J. A., Lewis, K. N., Peshkin, L., Price, N. L., Labinskyy, N., Swindell, W. R., Kamara, D., Minor, R. K., Perez, E., et al. (2008). "Resveratrol delays age-related deterioration and mimics transcriptional aspects of dietary restriction without extending life span." Cell Metab 8(2):157-168. PubMed

Pera, M. F., Reubinoff, B., and Trounson, A. (2000). "Human embryonic stem cells." J Cell Sci 113 ( Pt 1):5-10. PubMed

Perez, V. I., Buffenstein, R., Masamsetti, V., Leonard, S., Salmon, A. B., Mele, J., Andziak, B., Yang, T., Edrey, Y., Friguet, B., et al. (2009). "Protein stability and resistance to oxidative stress are determinants of longevity in the longest-living rodent, the naked mole-rat." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(9):3059-3064. PubMed

Perez, V. I., Cortez, L. A., Lew, C. M., Rodriguez, M., Webb, C. R., Van Remmen, H., Chaudhuri, A., Qi, W., Lee, S., Bokov, A., et al. (2011). "Thioredoxin 1 overexpression extends mainly the earlier part of life span in mice." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 66(12):1286-1299. PubMed

Perez-Campo, R., Lopez-Torres, M., Rojas, C., Cadenas, S., and Barja de Quiroga, G. (1993). "Lung glutathione reductase induction in aging catalase-depleted frogs correlates with early survival throughout the life span." Mech Ageing Dev 67(1-2):115-127. PubMed

Perls, T., Kunkel, L. M., and Puca, A. A. (2002). "The genetics of exceptional human longevity." J Am Geriatr Soc 50(2):359-368. PubMed

Perls, T. T. (2006). "The different paths to 100." Am J Clin Nutr 83(2):484S-487S. PubMed

Pervaiz, S. (2003). "Resveratrol: from grapevines to mammalian biology." Faseb J 17(14):1975-1985. PubMed

Peterson, R. T., Link, B. A., Dowling, J. E., and Schreiber, S. L. (2000). "Small molecule developmental screens reveal the logic and timing of vertebrate development." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(24):12965-12969. PubMed

Peto, R., and Doll, R. (1997). "There is no such thing as aging." Bmj 315(7115):1030-1032. PubMed

Petrascheck, M., Ye, X., and Buck, L. B. (2007). "An antidepressant that extends lifespan in adult Caenorhabditis elegans." Nature 450(7169):553-556. PubMed

Phelan, J. P., and Rose, M. R. (2005). "Why dietary restriction substantially increases longevity in animal models but won't in humans." Ageing Res Rev 4(3):339-350. PubMed

Pianka, E. R. (1970). "On r and K selection." Am Nat 104(940):592-597.

Pichierri, P., Franchitto, A., Mosesso, P., Proietti de Santis, L., Balajee, A. S., and Palitti, F. (2000). "Werner's syndrome lymphoblastoid cells are hypersensitive to topoisomerase II inhibitors in the G2 phase of the cell cycle." Mutat Res 459(2):123-133. PubMed

Pijnenburg, M. A., and Leget, C. (2007). "Who wants to live forever? Three arguments against extending the human lifespan." J Med Ethics 33(10):585-587. PubMed

Pitkanen, S., and Robinson, B. H. (1996). "Mitochondrial complex I deficiency leads to increased production of superoxide radicals and induction of superoxide dismutase." J Clin Invest 98(2):345-351. PubMed

Pletcher, S. D., Khazaeli, A. A., and Curtsinger, J. W. (2000). "Why do life spans differ? Partitioning mean longevity differences in terms of age-specific mortality parameters." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55(8):B381-389. PubMed

Plytycz, B., and Bigaj, J. (1993). "Studies on the growth and longevity of the yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, in natural environments." Amphibia-Reptilia 14:35-44.

Plytycz, B., Mika, J., and Bigaj, J. (1995a). "Age-dependent changes in thymuses in the European common frog, Rana temporaria." J Exp Zool 273(6):451-460. PubMed

Plytycz, B., Jozkowicz, A., Chadzinska, M., and Bigaj, J. (1995b). "Longevity of yellow-bellied toads (Bombina variegata) and the efficiency of their immune system." Naturschutzreport 11:77-84.

Poeggeler, B. (2005). "Melatonin, aging, and age-related diseases: perspectives for prevention, intervention, and therapy." Endocrine 27(2):201-212. PubMed

Polyukhov, A. M., Kobsar, I. V., Grebelnik, V. I., and Voitenko, V. P. (2000). "The accelerated occurrence of age-related changes of organism in Chernobyl workers: a radiation-induced progeroid syndrome?" Exp Gerontol 35(1):105-115. PubMed

Ponten, J., Stein, W. D., and Shall, S. (1983). "A quantitative analysis of the aging of human glial cells in culture." J Cell Physiol 117(3):342-352. PubMed

Post, S. G. (2004). "Anti-aging medicine: the history: establishing an appropriate ethical framework: the moral conversation around the goal of prolongevity." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 59(6):B534-539. PubMed

Pound, P., Ebrahim, S., Sandercock, P., Bracken, M. B., and Roberts, I. (2004). "Where is the evidence that animal research benefits humans?" Bmj 328(7438):514-517. PubMed

Prescott, J., and Blackburn, E. H. (1997). "Telomerase RNA mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae alter telomerase action and reveal nonprocessivity in vivo and in vitro." Genes Dev 11(4):528-540. PubMed

Price, J. S., Waters, J. G., Darrah, C., Pennington, C., Edwards, D. R., Donell, S. T., and Clark, I. M. (2002). "The role of chondrocyte senescence in osteoarthritis." Aging Cell 1(1):57-65. PubMed

Prinzinger, R. (2005). "Programmed ageing: the theory of maximal metabolic scope. How does the biological clock tick?" EMBO Rep 6 Spec No:S14-19. PubMed

Promislow, D. E. (1993). "On size and survival: progress and pitfalls in the allometry of life span." J Gerontol 48(4):B115-123. PubMed

Promislow, D. E. (1994). "DNA repair and the evolution of longevity: a critical analysis." J Theor Biol 170(3):291-300. PubMed

Prothero, J. (1993). "Adult life span as a function of age at maturity." Exp Gerontol 28(6):529-536. PubMed

Prowse, K. R., and Greider, C. W. (1995). "Developmental and tissue-specific regulation of mouse telomerase and telomere length." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(11):4818-4822. PubMed

Puca, A. A., Daly, M. J., Brewster, S. J., Matise, T. C., Barrett, J., Shea-Drinkwater, M., Kang, S., Joyce, E., Nicoli, J., Benson, E., et al. (2001). "A genome-wide scan for linkage to human exceptional longevity identifies a locus on chromosome 4." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(18):10505-10508. PubMed

Quick, K. L., Ali, S. S., Arch, R., Xiong, C., Wozniak, D., and Dugan, L. L. (2008). "A carboxyfullerene SOD mimetic improves cognition and extends the lifespan of mice." Neurobiol Aging 29(1):117-128. PubMed

Rabinovitch, P. S., and Martin, G. M. (1982). "Encephalomyocarditis virus as a probe of errors in macromolecular synthesis in aging mice." Mech Ageing Dev 20(2):155-163. PubMed

Racette, S. B., Weiss, E. P., Villareal, D. T., Arif, H., Steger-May, K., Schechtman, K. B., Fontana, L., Klein, S., and Holloszy, J. O. (2006). "One year of caloric restriction in humans: feasibility and effects on body composition and abdominal adipose tissue." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 61(9):943-950. PubMed

Raji, N. S., and Rao, K. S. (1998). "Trisomy 21 and accelerated aging: DNA-repair parameters in peripheral lymphocytes of Down's syndrome patients." Mech Ageing Dev 100(1):85-101. PubMed

Ramirez, R. D., Morales, C. P., Herbert, B. S., Rohde, J. M., Passons, C., Shay, J. W., and Wright, W. E. (2001). "Putative telomere-independent mechanisms of replicative aging reflect inadequate growth conditions." Genes Dev 15(4):398-403. PubMed

Ramsey, J. J., Colman, R. J., Binkley, N. C., Christensen, J. D., Gresl, T. A., Kemnitz, J. W., and Weindruch, R. (2000). "Dietary restriction and aging in rhesus monkeys: the University of Wisconsin study." Exp Gerontol 35(9-10):1131-1149. PubMed

Rando, T. A., and Chang, H. Y. (2012). "Aging, rejuvenation, and epigenetic reprogramming: resetting the aging clock." Cell 148(1-2):46-57. PubMed

Rasmussen, U. F., Krustrup, P., Kjaer, M., and Rasmussen, H. N. (2003). "Experimental evidence against the mitochondrial theory of aging A study of isolated human skeletal muscle mitochondria." Exp Gerontol 38(8):877-886. PubMed

Reaume, A. G., Elliott, J. L., Hoffman, E. K., Kowall, N. W., Ferrante, R. J., Siwek, D. F., Wilcox, H. M., Flood, D. G., Beal, M. F., Brown, R. H., Jr., et al. (1996). "Motor neurons in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-deficient mice develop normally but exhibit enhanced cell death after axonal injury." Nat Genet 13(1):43-47. PubMed

Renault, V., Thornell, L. E., Eriksson, P. O., Butler-Browne, G., Mouly, V., and Thorne, L. E. (2002). "Regenerative potential of human skeletal muscle during aging." Aging Cell 1(2):132-139. PubMed

Rera, M., Azizi, M. J., and Walker, D. W. (2013). "Organ-specific mediation of lifespan extension: more than a gut feeling?" Ageing Res Rev 12(1):436-444. PubMed

Reznick, D. N., Bryant, M. J., Roff, D., Ghalambor, C. K., and Ghalambor, D. E. (2004). "Effect of extrinsic mortality on the evolution of senescence in guppies." Nature 431(7012):1095-1099. PubMed

Reznick, D. N. (2005). "The genetic basis of aging: an evolutionary biologist's perspective." Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2005(11):pe7. PubMed

Rheinwald, J. G., Hahn, W. C., Ramsey, M. R., Wu, J. Y., Guo, Z., Tsao, H., De Luca, M., Catricala, C., and O'Toole, K. M. (2002). "A two-stage, p16(INK4A)- and p53-dependent keratinocyte senescence mechanism that limits replicative potential independent of telomere status." Mol Cell Biol 22(14):5157-5172. PubMed

Ricklefs, R. E. (2010). "Life-history connections to rates of aging in terrestrial vertebrates." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(22):10314-10319. PubMed

Robbins, E., Levine, E. M., and Eagle, H. (1970). "Morphologic changes accompanying senescence of cultured human diploid cells." J Exp Med 131(6):1211-1222. PubMed

Robertson, O. H. (1961). "Prolongation of the life span of kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) by castration before beginning of gonad development." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 47(4):609-621.

Robinson, B. H. (1998). "Human complex I deficiency: clinical spectrum and involvement of oxygen free radicals in the pathogenicity of the defect." Biochim Biophys Acta 1364(2):271-286. PubMed

Robles, S. J., and Adami, G. R. (1998). "Agents that cause DNA double strand breaks lead to p16INK4a enrichment and the premature senescence of normal fibroblasts." Oncogene 16(9):1113-1123. PubMed

Rodriguez, J. I., Perez-Alonso, P., Funes, R., and Perez-Rodriguez, J. (1999). "Lethal neonatal Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome." Am J Med Genet 82(3):242-248. PubMed

Rogan, E. M., Bryan, T. M., Hukku, B., Maclean, K., Chang, A. C., Moy, E. L., Englezou, A., Warneford, S. G., Dalla-Pozza, L., and Reddel, R. R. (1995). "Alterations in p53 and p16INK4 expression and telomere length during spontaneous immortalization of Li-Fraumeni syndrome fibroblasts." Mol Cell Biol 15(9):4745-4753. PubMed

Rohme, D. (1981). "Evidence for a relationship between longevity of mammalian species and life spans of normal fibroblasts in vitro and erythrocytes in vivo." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 78(8):5009-5013. PubMed

Rollo, C. D. (2002). "Growth negatively impacts the life span of mammals." Evol Dev 4(1):55-61. PubMed

Rose, M. R. (1989). "Genetics of increased lifespan in Drosophila." Bioessays 11(5):132-135. PubMed

Rose, M. R. (1991). Evolutionary Biology of Aging. Oxford University Press, New York.

Rose, M. R., Drapeau, M. D., Yazdi, P. G., Shah, K. H., Moise, D. B., Thakar, R. R., Rauser, C. L., and Mueller, L. D. (2002). "Evolution of late-life mortality in Drosophila melanogaster." Evolution Int J Org Evolution 56(10):1982-1991. PubMed

Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., Seita, J., Nussenzweig, A., Hoeijmakers, J., and Weissman, I. L. (2007). "Deficiencies in DNA damage repair limit the function of haematopoietic stem cells with age." Nature 447(7145):725-729. PubMed

Rossolini, G., and Piantanelli, L. (2001). "Mathematical modeling of the aging processes and the mechanisms of mortality: paramount role of heterogeneity." Exp Gerontol 36(8):1277-1288. PubMed

Rotig, A., de Lonlay, P., Chretien, D., Foury, F., Koenig, M., Sidi, D., Munnich, A., and Rustin, P. (1997). "Aconitase and mitochondrial iron-sulphur protein deficiency in Friedreich ataxia." Nat Genet 17(2):215-217. PubMed

Rougier, G. W., and Novacek, M. J. (1998). "Early mammals: teeth, jaws and finally a skeleton!" Curr Biol 8(8):R284-287. PubMed

Rouse, J., and Jackson, S. P. (2002). "Interfaces between the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA damage." Science 297(5581):547-551. PubMed

Rovio, A. T., Marchington, D. R., Donat, S., Schuppe, H. C., Abel, J., Fritsche, E., Elliott, D. J., Laippala, P., Ahola, A. L., McNay, D., et al. (2001). "Mutations at the mitochondrial DNA polymerase (POLG) locus associated with male infertility." Nat Genet 29(3):261-262. PubMed

Rowe, J. W., and Kahn, R. L. (1987). "Human aging: usual and successful." Science 237(4811):143-149. PubMed

Roy, J., Fulton, T. B., and Blackburn, E. H. (1998). "Specific telomerase RNA residues distant from the template are essential for telomerase function." Genes Dev 12(20):3286-3300. PubMed

Ruan, H., Tang, X. D., Chen, M. L., Joiner, M. L., Sun, G., Brot, N., Weissbach, H., Heinemann, S. H., Iverson, L., Wu, C. F., et al. (2002). "High-quality life extension by the enzyme peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(5):2748-2753. PubMed

Rubinsztein, D. C., Marino, G., and Kroemer, G. (2011). "Autophagy and aging." Cell 146(5):682-695. PubMed

Rudolph, K. L., Chang, S., Lee, H. W., Blasco, M., Gottlieb, G. J., Greider, C., and DePinho, R. A. (1999). "Longevity, stress response, and cancer in aging telomerase-deficient mice." Cell 96(5):701-712. PubMed

Rudolph, K. L., Millard, M., Bosenberg, M. W., and DePinho, R. A. (2001). "Telomere dysfunction and evolution of intestinal carcinoma in mice and humans." Nat Genet 28(2):155-159. PubMed

Saito, K., Yoshioka, H., and Cutler, R. G. (1998). "A spin trap, N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone extends the life span of mice." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 62(4):792-794. PubMed

Saitoh, M., Nishitoh, H., Fujii, M., Takeda, K., Tobiume, K., Sawada, Y., Kawabata, M., Miyazono, K., and Ichijo, H. (1998). "Mammalian thioredoxin is a direct inhibitor of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) 1." Embo J 17(9):2596-2606. PubMed

Salganik, R. I., Solovyova, N. A., Dikalov, S. I., Grishaeva, O. N., Semenova, L. A., and Popovsky, A. V. (1994). "Inherited enhancement of hydroxyl radical generation and lipid peroxidation in the S strain rats results in DNA rearrangements, degenerative diseases, and premature aging." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 199(2):726-733. PubMed

Salk, D., Bryant, E., Au, K., Hoehn, H., and Martin, G. M. (1981). "Systematic growth studies, cocultivation, and cell hybridization studies of Werner syndrome cultured skin fibroblasts." Hum Genet 58(3):310-316. PubMed

Salminen, A., and Kaarniranta, K. (2009). "SIRT1: regulation of longevity via autophagy." Cell Signal 21(9):1356-1360. PubMed

Salmon, A. B., Murakami, S., Bartke, A., Kopchick, J., Yasumura, K., and Miller, R. A. (2005). "Fibroblast cell lines from young adult mice of long-lived mutant strains are resistant to multiple forms of stress." Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 289(1):E23-29. PubMed

Salmon, A. B., Leonard, S., Masamsetti, V., Pierce, A., Podlutsky, A. J., Podlutskaya, N., Richardson, A., Austad, S. N., and Chaudhuri, A. R. (2009). "The long lifespan of two bat species is correlated with resistance to protein oxidation and enhanced protein homeostasis." Faseb J 23(7):2317-2326. PubMed

Salway, K. D., Page, M. M., Faure, P. A., Burness, G., and Stuart, J. A. (2011). "Enhanced protein repair and recycling are not correlated with longevity in 15 vertebrate endotherm species." Age (Dordr) 33(1):33-47. PubMed

Sams-Dodd, F. (2005). "Target-based drug discovery: is something wrong?" Drug Discov Today 10(2):139-147. PubMed

Sapolsky, R. M., Krey, L. C., and McEwen, B. S. (1986). "The neuroendocrinology of stress and aging: the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis." Endocr Rev 7(3):284-301. PubMed

Schmidt-Nielsen, K. (1984). Scaling: Why is Animal Size So Important? Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

Schneider, E. L. (1999). "Aging in the third millennium." Science 283(5403):796-797. PubMed

Schrempf, A., Heinze, J., and Cremer, S. (2005). "Sexual cooperation: mating increases longevity in ant queens." Curr Biol 15(3):267-270. PubMed

Schriner, S. E., Ogburn, C. E., Smith, A. C., Newcomb, T. G., Ladiges, W. C., Dolle, M. E., Vijg, J., Fukuchi, K., and Martin, G. M. (2000). "Levels of dna damage are unaltered in mice overexpressing human catalase in nuclei." Free Radic Biol Med 29(7):664-673. PubMed

Schriner, S. E., Linford, N. J., Martin, G. M., Treuting, P., Ogburn, C. E., Emond, M., Coskun, P. E., Ladiges, W., Wolf, N., Van Remmen, H., et al. (2005). "Extension of murine life span by overexpression of catalase targeted to mitochondria." Science 308(5730):1909-1911. PubMed

Schulz, V. P., Zakian, V. A., Ogburn, C. E., McKay, J., Jarzebowicz, A. A., Edland, S. D., and Martin, G. M. (1996). "Accelerated loss of telomeric repeats may not explain accelerated replicative decline of Werner syndrome cells." Hum Genet 97(6):750-754. PubMed

Selman, C., McLaren, J. S., Meyer, C., Duncan, J. S., Redman, P., Collins, A. R., Duthie, G. G., and Speakman, J. R. (2006). "Life-long vitamin C supplementation in combination with cold exposure does not affect oxidative damage or lifespan in mice, but decreases expression of antioxidant protection genes." Mech Ageing Dev 127(12):897-904. PubMed

Seluanov, A., Chen, Z., Hine, C., Sasahara, T. H., Ribeiro, A. A., Catania, K. C., Presgraves, D. C., and Gorbunova, V. (2007). "Telomerase activity coevolves with body mass not lifespan." Aging Cell 6(1):45-52. PubMed

Seluanov, A., Hine, C., Bozzella, M., Hall, A., Sasahara, T. H., Ribeiro, A. A., Catania, K. C., Presgraves, D. C., and Gorbunova, V. (2008). "Distinct tumor suppressor mechanisms evolve in rodent species that differ in size and lifespan." Aging Cell 7(6):813-823. PubMed

Seluanov, A., Hine, C., Azpurua, J., Feigenson, M., Bozzella, M., Mao, Z., Catania, K. C., and Gorbunova, V. (2009). "Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(46):19352-19357. PubMed

Sequeiros, J., Silveira, I., Maciel, P., Coutinho, P., Manaia, A., Gaspar, C., Burlet, P., Loureiro, L., Guimaraes, J., Tanaka, H., et al. (1994). "Genetic linkage studies of Machado-Joseph disease with chromosome 14q STRPs in 16 Portuguese-Azorean kindreds." Genomics 21(3):645-648. PubMed

Serra, V., and von Zglinicki, T. (2002). "Human fibroblasts in vitro senesce with a donor-specific telomere length." FEBS Lett 516(1-3):71-74. PubMed

Serrano, M., Lin, A. W., McCurrach, M. E., Beach, D., and Lowe, S. W. (1997). "Oncogenic ras provokes premature cell senescence associated with accumulation of p53 and p16INK4a." Cell 88(5):593-602. PubMed

Serrano, M., and Blasco, M. A. (2001). "Putting the stress on senescence." Curr Opin Cell Biol 13(6):748-753. PubMed

Sethe, S., and de Magalhaes, J. P. (2013). "Ethical Perspectives in Biogerontology." In: Ethics, Health Policy and (Anti-) Aging: Mixed Blessings, Schermer, M. and Pinxten, W. (ed.).  Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 173-188.

Shaharabany, M., Gollop, N., Ravin, S., Golomb, E., DeMarco, L., Ferreira, P. C., Boson, W. L., and Friedman, E. (1999). "Naturally occurring antibacterial activities of avian and crocodile tissues." J Antimicrob Chemother 44(3):416-418. PubMed

Shammas, M. A., Simmons, C. G., Corey, D. R., and Shmookler Reis, R. J. (1999). "Telomerase inhibition by peptide nucleic acids reverses 'immortality' of transformed human cells." Oncogene 18(46):6191-6200. PubMed

Shapiro, G. I., Edwards, C. D., Ewen, M. E., and Rollins, B. J. (1998). "p16INK4A participates in a G1 arrest checkpoint in response to DNA damage." Mol Cell Biol 18(1):378-387. PubMed

Shawi, M., and Autexier, C. (2008). "Telomerase, senescence and ageing." Mech Ageing Dev 129(1-2):3-10. PubMed

Shay, J. W., Pereira-Smith, O. M., and Wright, W. E. (1991). "A role for both RB and p53 in the regulation of human cellular senescence." Exp Cell Res 196(1):33-39. PubMed

Shay, J. W. (1999). "At the end of the millennium, a view of the end." Nat Genet 23(4):382-383. PubMed

Shay, J. W., and Wright, W. E. (2000). "Hayflick, his limit, and cellular ageing." Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 1(1):72-76. PubMed

Shelton, D. N., Chang, E., Whittier, P. S., Choi, D., and Funk, W. D. (1999). "Microarray analysis of replicative senescence." Curr Biol 9(17):939-945. PubMed

Shen, J. C., and Loeb, L. A. (2000). "The Werner syndrome gene: the molecular basis of RecQ helicase-deficiency diseases." Trends Genet 16(5):213-220. PubMed

Shen, J., Tsai, Y.-T., DiMarco, N. M., Long, M. A., Sun, X., and Tang, L. (2011). "Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells from young donors delays aging in mice." Scientific Reports 1:67.

Sherwood, S. W., Rush, D., Ellsworth, J. L., and Schimke, R. T. (1988). "Defining cellular senescence in IMR-90 cells: a flow cytometric analysis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85(23):9086-9090. PubMed

Shi, N., and Pardridge, W. M. (2000). "Noninvasive gene targeting to the brain." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(13):7567-7572. PubMed

Shiels, P. G., Kind, A. J., Campbell, K. H., Waddington, D., Wilmut, I., Colman, A., and Schnieke, A. E. (1999). "Analysis of telomere lengths in cloned sheep." Nature 399(6734):316-317. PubMed

Shimokawa, I., Higami, Y., Tsuchiya, T., Otani, H., Komatsu, T., Chiba, T., and Yamaza, H. (2003). "Life span extension by reduction of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis: relation to caloric restriction." Faseb J 17(9):1108-1109. PubMed

Simon, A. F., Shih, C., Mack, A., and Benzer, S. (2003). "Steroid control of longevity in Drosophila melanogaster." Science 299(5611):1407-1410. PubMed

Simonsen, A., Cumming, R. C., Brech, A., Isakson, P., Schubert, D. R., and Finley, K. D. (2008). "Promoting basal levels of autophagy in the nervous system enhances longevity and oxidant resistance in adult Drosophila." Autophagy 4(2):176-184. PubMed

Sinclair, D. A., and Guarente, L. (1997). "Extrachromosomal rDNA circles--a cause of aging in yeast." Cell 91(7):1033-1042. PubMed

Sinclair, D. A. (2002). "Paradigms and pitfalls of yeast longevity research." Mech Ageing Dev 123(8):857-867. PubMed

Sitte, N., Saretzki, G., and von Zglinicki, T. (1998). "Accelerated telomere shortening in fibroblasts after extended periods of confluency." Free Radic Biol Med 24(6):885-893. PubMed

Smirina, E. M. (1994). "Age determination and longevity in amphibians." Gerontology 40(2-4):133-146. PubMed

Smith, J. R., and Whitney, R. G. (1980). "Intraclonal variation in proliferative potential of human diploid fibroblasts: stochastic mechanism for cellular aging." Science 207(4426):82-84. PubMed

Smith, J., and Schofield, P. N. (1994). "The effects of fibroblast growth factors in long-term primary culture of dystrophic (mdx) mouse muscle myoblasts." Exp Cell Res 210(1):86-93. PubMed

Smith, D. E., Roberts, J., Gage, F. H., and Tuszynski, M. H. (1999). "Age-associated neuronal atrophy occurs in the primate brain and is reversible by growth factor gene therapy." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(19):10893-10898. PubMed

Smith-Sonneborn, J. (1987). "Longevity in the protozoa." Basic Life Sci 42:101-109. PubMed

Smogorzewska, A., van Steensel, B., Bianchi, A., Oelmann, S., Schaefer, M. R., Schnapp, G., and de Lange, T. (2000). "Control of human telomere length by TRF1 and TRF2." Mol Cell Biol 20(5):1659-1668. PubMed

Smogorzewska, A., and de Lange, T. (2002). "Different telomere damage signaling pathways in human and mouse cells." Embo J 21(16):4338-4348. PubMed

Snyder, E. Y., and Loring, J. F. (2005). "A role for stem cell biology in the physiological and pathological aspects of aging." J Am Geriatr Soc 53(9 Suppl):S287-291. PubMed

Sohal, R. S., Sohal, B. H., and Brunk, U. T. (1990). "Relationship between antioxidant defenses and longevity in different mammalian species." Mech Ageing Dev 53(3):217-227. PubMed

Sohal, R. S., and Brunk, U. T. (1992). "Mitochondrial production of pro-oxidants and cellular senescence." Mutat Res 275(3-6):295-304. PubMed

Sohal, R. S., and Weindruch, R. (1996). "Oxidative stress, caloric restriction, and aging." Science 273(5271):59-63. PubMed

Sohal, R. S., Mockett, R. J., and Orr, W. C. (2002). "Mechanisms of aging: an appraisal of the oxidative stress hypothesis." Free Radic Biol Med 33(5):575-586. PubMed

Sonntag, W. E., Lynch, C. D., Cefalu, W. T., Ingram, R. L., Bennett, S. A., Thornton, P. L., and Khan, A. S. (1999). "Pleiotropic effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 on biological aging: inferences from moderate caloric-restricted animals." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 54(12):B521-538. PubMed

Speakman, J. R., Talbot, D. A., Selman, C., Snart, S., McLaren, J. S., Redman, P., Krol, E., Jackson, D. M., Johnson, M. S., and Brand, M. D. (2004). "Uncoupled and surviving: individual mice with high metabolism have greater mitochondrial uncoupling and live longer." Aging Cell 3(3):87-95. PubMed

Speakman, J. R. (2005). "Correlations between physiology and lifespan--two widely ignored problems with comparative studies." Aging Cell 4(4):167-175. PubMed

Spence, A. P. (1995). Biology of Human Aging. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Spencer, C. C., and Promislow, D. E. (2002). "Genes, culture, and aging flies--what the lab can and cannot tell us about natural genetic variation for senescence." Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2002(20):pe6. PubMed

Spencer, C. C., and Promislow, D. E. (2002). "Biologists finally horn in on senescence in the wild." Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2002(47):pe19. PubMed

Spindler, S. R. (2005). "Rapid and reversible induction of the longevity, anticancer and genomic effects of caloric restriction." Mech Ageing Dev 126(9):960-966. PubMed

Stanley, J. F., Pye, D., and MacGregor, A. (1975). "Comparison of doubling numbers attained by cultured animal cells with life span of species." Nature 255(5504):158-159. PubMed

Stearns, S. C. (1992). The Evolution of Life Histories. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Stein, G. H., and Dulic, V. (1998). "Molecular mechanisms for the senescent cell cycle arrest." J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 3(1):14-18. PubMed

Steinert, S., Shay, J. W., and Wright, W. E. (2000). "Transient expression of human telomerase extends the life span of normal human fibroblasts." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 273(3):1095-1098. PubMed

Steinert, S., White, D. M., Zou, Y., Shay, J. W., and Wright, W. E. (2002). "Telomere biology and cellular aging in nonhuman primate cells." Exp Cell Res 272(2):146-152. PubMed

Stewart, S. A., and Weinberg, R. A. (2000). "Telomerase and human tumorigenesis." Semin Cancer Biol 10(6):399-406. PubMed

Stewart, S. A., Ben-Porath, I., Carey, V. J., O'Connor, B. F., Hahn, W. C., and Weinberg, R. A. (2003). "Erosion of the telomeric single-strand overhang at replicative senescence." Nat Genet 33(4):492-496. PubMed

Stewart, E. J., Madden, R., Paul, G., and Taddei, F. (2005). "Aging and death in an organism that reproduces by morphologically symmetric division." PLoS Biol 3(2):e45. PubMed

Stock, G. B. (2004). "The pitfalls of planning for demographic change." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1019:546-551. PubMed

Strehler, B. L. (1986). "Genetic instability as the primary cause of human aging." Exp Gerontol 21(4-5):283-319. PubMed

Strehler, B. L. (1999). Time, Cells, and Aging. Demetriades Brothers, Larnaca.

Su, A. I., Wiltshire, T., Batalov, S., Lapp, H., Ching, K. A., Block, D., Zhang, J., Soden, R., Hayakawa, M., Kreiman, G., et al. (2004). "A gene atlas of the mouse and human protein-encoding transcriptomes." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(16):6062-6067. PubMed

Suga, H., Kadoshima, T., Minaguchi, M., Ohgushi, M., Soen, M., Nakano, T., Takata, N., Wataya, T., Muguruma, K., Miyoshi, H., et al. (2011). "Self-formation of functional adenohypophysis in three-dimensional culture." Nature 480(7375):57-62. PubMed

Sugihara, M., Ohshima, K., Nakamura, H., Suzumiya, J., Nakayama, Y., Kanda, M., Haraoka, S., and Kikuchi, M. (1999). "Decreased expression of telomerase-associated RNAs in the proliferation of stem cells in comparison with continuous expression in malignant tumors." Int J Oncol 15(6):1075-1080. PubMed

Sugita, K., Suzuki, N., Fujii, K., and Niimi, H. (1995). "Reduction of unscheduled DNA synthesis and plasminogen activator activity in Hutchinson-Gilford fibroblasts during passaging in vitro: partial correction by interferon-beta." Mutat Res 316(3):133-138. PubMed

Sugrue, M. M., Shin, D. Y., Lee, S. W., and Aaronson, S. A. (1997). "Wild-type p53 triggers a rapid senescence program in human tumor cells lacking functional p53." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(18):9648-9653. PubMed

Suh, Y., Atzmon, G., Cho, M. O., Hwang, D., Liu, B., Leahy, D. J., Barzilai, N., and Cohen, P. (2008). "Functionally significant insulin-like growth factor I receptor mutations in centenarians." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(9):3438-3442. PubMed

Suhr, S. T., Chang, E. A., Tjong, J., Alcasid, N., Perkins, G. A., Goissis, M. D., Ellisman, M. H., Perez, G. I., and Cibelli, J. B. (2010). "Mitochondrial rejuvenation after induced pluripotency." PLoS One 5(11):e14095. PubMed

Sun, D., Muthukumar, A. R., Lawrence, R. A., and Fernandes, G. (2001). "Effects of calorie restriction on polymicrobial peritonitis induced by cecum ligation and puncture in young C57BL/6 mice." Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8(5):1003-1011. PubMed

Sutphin, G. L., and Kaeberlein, M. (2008). "Dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation increases life span in wild-derived nematodes." Exp Gerontol 43(3):130-135. PubMed

Symes, J. F., Losordo, D. W., Vale, P. R., Lathi, K. G., Esakof, D. D., Mayskiy, M., and Isner, J. M. (1999). "Gene therapy with vascular endothelial growth factor for inoperable coronary artery disease." Ann Thorac Surg 68(3):830-836; discussion 836-837. PubMed

Szilard, L. (1959). "On the nature of the aging process." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 45(1):30-45. PubMed

Tahara, H., Sato, E., Noda, A., and Ide, T. (1995). "Increase in expression level of p21sdi1/cip1/waf1 with increasing division age in both normal and SV40-transformed human fibroblasts." Oncogene 10(5):835-840. PubMed

Tahara, H., Yasui, W., Tahara, E., Fujimoto, J., Ito, K., Tamai, K., Nakayama, J., Ishikawa, F., and Ide, T. (1999). "Immuno-histochemical detection of human telomerase catalytic component, hTERT, in human colorectal tumor and non-tumor tissue sections." Oncogene 18(8):1561-1567. PubMed

Takahashi, K., and Yamanaka, S. (2006). "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors." Cell 126(4):663-676. PubMed

Takubo, K., Izumiyama-Shimomura, N., Honma, N., Sawabe, M., Arai, T., Kato, M., Oshimura, M., and Nakamura, K. I. (2002). "Telomere lengths are characteristic in each human individual." Exp Gerontol 37(4):523-531. PubMed

Tang, D. G., Tokumoto, Y. M., Apperly, J. A., Lloyd, A. C., and Raff, M. C. (2001). "Lack of replicative senescence in cultured rat oligodendrocyte precursor cells." Science 291(5505):868-871. PubMed

Tang, F., Watkins, J. W., Bermudez, M., Gray, R., Gaban, A., Portie, K., Grace, S., Kleve, M., and Craciun, G. (2008). "A life-span extending form of autophagy employs the vacuole-vacuole fusion machinery." Autophagy 4(7):874-886. PubMed

Tang, S., Wang, J., Lee, N. C., Milone, M., Halberg, M. C., Schmitt, E. S., Craigen, W. J., Zhang, W., and Wong, L. J. (2011). "Mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma mutations: an ever expanding molecular and clinical spectrum." J Med Genet 48(10):669-681. PubMed

Tanhauser, S. M., and Laipis, P. J. (1995). "Multiple deletions are detectable in mitochondrial DNA of aging mice." J Biol Chem 270(42):24769-24775. PubMed

Tardif, S. D., Mansfield, K. G., Ratnam, R., Ross, C. N., and Ziegler, T. E. (2011). "The marmoset as a model of aging and age-related diseases." Ilar J 52(1):54-65. PubMed

Tatar, M., and Yin, C. (2001). "Slow aging during insect reproductive diapause: why butterflies, grasshoppers and flies are like worms." Exp Gerontol 36(4-6):723-738. PubMed

Tatar, M., Bartke, A., and Antebi, A. (2003). "The endocrine regulation of aging by insulin-like signals." Science 299(5611):1346-1351. PubMed

Taylor, R. S., Ramirez, R. D., Ogoshi, M., Chaffins, M., Piatyszek, M. A., and Shay, J. W. (1996). "Detection of telomerase activity in malignant and nonmalignant skin conditions." J Invest Dermatol 106(4):759-765. PubMed

te Poele, R. H., Okorokov, A. L., Jardine, L., Cummings, J., and Joel, S. P. (2002). "DNA damage is able to induce senescence in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo." Cancer Res 62(6):1876-1883. PubMed

Tesco, G., Vergelli, M., Grassilli, E., Salomoni, P., Bellesia, E., Sikora, E., Radziszewska, E., Barbieri, D., Latorraca, S., Fagiolo, U., et al. (1998). "Growth properties and growth factor responsiveness in skin fibroblasts from centenarians." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 244(3):912-916. PubMed

Teter, B., and Finch, C. E. (2004). "Caliban's heritance and the genetics of neuronal aging." Trends Neurosci 27(10):627-632. PubMed

Theys, J., Barbe, S., Landuyt, W., Nuyts, S., Van Mellaert, L., Wouters, B., Anne, J., and Lambin, P. (2003). "Tumor-specific gene delivery using genetically engineered bacteria." Curr Gene Ther 3(3):207-221. PubMed

Timiras, P. S. (2002). Physiological Basis of Aging and Geriatrics. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Timmers, S., Konings, E., Bilet, L., Houtkooper, R. H., van de Weijer, T., Goossens, G. H., Hoeks, J., van der Krieken, S., Ryu, D., Kersten, S., et al. (2011). "Calorie Restriction-like Effects of 30 Days of Resveratrol Supplementation on Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Profile in Obese Humans." Cell Metab 14(5):612-622. PubMed

Tissenbaum, H. A., and Guarente, L. (2002). "Model organisms as a guide to mammalian aging." Dev Cell 2(1):9-19. PubMed

Toda, T., Satoh, M., Sugimoto, M., Goto, M., Furuichi, Y., and Kimura, N. (1998). "A comparative analysis of the proteins between the fibroblasts from Werner's syndrome patients and age-matched normal individuals using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis." Mech Ageing Dev 100(2):133-143. PubMed

Tolmasoff, J. M., Ono, T., and Cutler, R. G. (1980). "Superoxide dismutase: correlation with life-span and specific metabolic rate in primate species." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 77(5):2777-2781. PubMed

Tomaru, U., Takahashi, S., Ishizu, A., Miyatake, Y., Gohda, A., Suzuki, S., Ono, A., Ohara, J., Baba, T., Murata, S., et al. (2012). "Decreased proteasomal activity causes age-related phenotypes and promotes the development of metabolic abnormalities." Am J Pathol 180(3):963-972. PubMed

Tomas-Loba, A., Flores, I., Fernandez-Marcos, P. J., Cayuela, M. L., Maraver, A., Tejera, A., Borras, C., Matheu, A., Klatt, P., Flores, J. M., et al. (2008). "Telomerase reverse transcriptase delays aging in cancer-resistant mice." Cell 135(4):609-622. PubMed

Toth, M. L., Sigmond, T., Borsos, E., Barna, J., Erdelyi, P., Takacs-Vellai, K., Orosz, L., Kovacs, A. L., Csikos, G., Sass, M., et al. (2008). "Longevity pathways converge on autophagy genes to regulate life span in Caenorhabditis elegans." Autophagy 4(3):330-338. PubMed

Toussaint, O., Dumont, P., Dierick, J. F., Pascal, T., Frippiat, C., Chainiaux, F., Sluse, F., Eliaers, F., and Remacle, J. (2000). "Stress-induced premature senescence. Essence of life, evolution, stress, and aging." Ann N Y Acad Sci 908:85-98. PubMed

Toussaint, O., Dumont, P., Remacle, J., Dierick, J. F., Pascal, T., Frippiat, C., Magalhaes, J. P., Zdanov, S., and Chainiaux, F. (2002a). "Stress-induced premature senescence or stress-induced senescence-like phenotype: one in vivo reality, two possible definitions?" ScientificWorldJournal 2(1):230-247. PubMed

Toussaint, O., Remacle, J., Dierick, J. F., Pascal, T., Frippiat, C., Zdanov, S., Magalhaes, J. P., Royer, V., and Chainiaux, F. (2002b). "From the Hayflick mosaic to the mosaics of ageing. Role of stress-induced premature senescence in human ageing." Int J Biochem Cell Biol 34(11):1415-1429. PubMed

Tower, J. (2000). "Transgenic methods for increasing Drosophila life span." Mech Ageing Dev 118(1-2):1-14. PubMed

Townes-Anderson, E., Colantonio, A., and St Jules, R. S. (1998). "Age-related changes in the tiger salamander retina." Exp Eye Res 66(5):653-667. PubMed

Tredici, G., Miloso, M., Nicolini, G., Galbiati, S., Cavaletti, G., and Bertelli, A. (1999). "Resveratrol, map kinases and neuronal cells: might wine be a neuroprotectant?" Drugs Exp Clin Res 25(2-3):99-103. PubMed

Trewavas, A. (2002). "Malthus foiled again and again." Nature 418(6898):668-670. PubMed

Trifunovic, A., Wredenberg, A., Falkenberg, M., Spelbrink, J. N., Rovio, A. T., Bruder, C. E., Bohlooly, Y. M., Gidlof, S., Oldfors, A., Wibom, R., et al. (2004). "Premature ageing in mice expressing defective mitochondrial DNA polymerase." Nature 429(6990):417-423. PubMed

Trifunovic, A., Hansson, A., Wredenberg, A., Rovio, A. T., Dufour, E., Khvorostov, I., Spelbrink, J. N., Wibom, R., Jacobs, H. T., and Larsson, N. G. (2005). "Somatic mtDNA mutations cause aging phenotypes without affecting reactive oxygen species production." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(50):17993-17998. PubMed

Trinei, M., Giorgio, M., Cicalese, A., Barozzi, S., Ventura, A., Migliaccio, E., Milia, E., Padura, I. M., Raker, V. A., Maccarana, M., et al. (2002). "A p53-p66Shc signalling pathway controls intracellular redox status, levels of oxidation-damaged DNA and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis." Oncogene 21(24):3872-3878. PubMed

Tsuzuki, T., Egashira, A., Igarashi, H., Iwakuma, T., Nakatsuru, Y., Tominaga, Y., Kawate, H., Nakao, K., Nakamura, K., Ide, F., et al. (2001). "Spontaneous tumorigenesis in mice defective in the MTH1 gene encoding 8-oxo-dGTPase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(20):11456-11461. PubMed

Turbill, C., and Ruf, T. (2010). "Senescence is more important in the natural lives of long- than short-lived mammals." PLoS One 5(8):e12019. PubMed

Turbill, C., Bieber, C., and Ruf, T. (2011). "Hibernation is associated with increased survival and the evolution of slow life histories among mammals." Proc Biol Sci 278(1723):3355-3363. PubMed

Tuschl, T. (2002). "Expanding small RNA interference." Nat Biotechnol 20(5):446-448. PubMed

Tyner, S. D., Venkatachalam, S., Choi, J., Jones, S., Ghebranious, N., Igelmann, H., Lu, X., Soron, G., Cooper, B., Brayton, C., et al. (2002). "p53 mutant mice that display early ageing-associated phenotypes." Nature 415(6867):45-53. PubMed

Tyynismaa, H., Mjosund, K. P., Wanrooij, S., Lappalainen, I., Ylikallio, E., Jalanko, A., Spelbrink, J. N., Paetau, A., and Suomalainen, A. (2005). "Mutant mitochondrial helicase Twinkle causes multiple mtDNA deletions and a late-onset mitochondrial disease in mice." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(49):17687-17692. PubMed

Ueda, M., Ouhtit, A., Bito, T., Nakazawa, K., Lubbe, J., Ichihashi, M., Yamasaki, H., and Nakazawa, H. (1997). "Evidence for UV-associated activation of telomerase in human skin." Cancer Res 57(3):370-374. PubMed

Umeda-Kameyama, Y., Tsuda, M., Ohkura, C., Matsuo, T., Namba, Y., Ohuchi, Y., and Aigaki, T. (2007). "Thioredoxin suppresses Parkin-associated endothelin receptor-like receptor-induced neurotoxicity and extends longevity in Drosophila." J Biol Chem 282(15):11180-11187. PubMed

Unal, E., Kinde, B., and Amon, A. (2011). "Gametogenesis eliminates age-induced cellular damage and resets life span in yeast." Science 332(6037):1554-1557. PubMed

Unwin, M. J., Kinnison, M. T., and Quinn, T. P. (1999). "Exceptions to semelparity: postmaturation survival, morphology, and energetics of male chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)." Can J Fish Aquat Sci, 56(7):1172-1181.

Valdesalici, S., and Cellerino, A. (2003). "Extremely short lifespan in the annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri." Proc Biol Sci 270 Suppl 2:S189-191. PubMed

Van Goethem, G., Dermaut, B., Lofgren, A., Martin, J. J., and Van Broeckhoven, C. (2001). "Mutation of POLG is associated with progressive external ophthalmoplegia characterized by mtDNA deletions." Nat Genet 28(3):211-212. PubMed

van Loon, A. A., Sonneveld, E., Hoogerbrugge, J., van der Schans, G. P., Grootegoed, J. A., Lohman, P. H., and Baan, R. A. (1993). "Induction and repair of DNA single-strand breaks and DNA base damage at different cellular stages of spermatogenesis of the hamster upon in vitro exposure to ionizing radiation." Mutat Res 294(2):139-148. PubMed

Van Raamsdonk, J. M., and Hekimi, S. (2009). "Deletion of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase sod-2 extends lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans." PLoS Genet 5(2):e1000361. PubMed

Van Remmen, H., Ikeno, Y., Hamilton, M., Pahlavani, M., Wolf, N., Thorpe, S. R., Alderson, N. L., Baynes, J. W., Epstein, C. J., Huang, T. T., et al. (2003). "Life-long reduction in MnSOD activity results in increased DNA damage and higher incidence of cancer but does not accelerate aging." Physiol Genomics 16(1):29-37. PubMed

van Steensel, B., and de Lange, T. (1997). "Control of telomere length by the human telomeric protein TRF1." Nature 385(6618):740-743. PubMed

van Steensel, B., Smogorzewska, A., and de Lange, T. (1998). "TRF2 protects human telomeres from end-to-end fusions." Cell 92(3):401-413. PubMed

Van Zant, G., and Liang, Y. (2003). "The role of stem cells in aging." Exp Hematol 31(8):659-672. PubMed

Vanfleteren, J. R., and Braeckman, B. P. (1999). "Mechanisms of life span determination in Caenorhabditis elegans." Neurobiol Aging 20(5):487-502. PubMed

Varela, E., and Blasco, M. A. (2010). "2009 nobel prize in physiology or medicine: telomeres and telomerase." Oncogene 29(11):1561-1565. PubMed

Varley, J. M., Evans, D. G., and Birch, J. M. (1997). "Li-Fraumeni syndrome--a molecular and clinical review." Br J Cancer 76(1):1-14. PubMed

Varon, R., Vissinga, C., Platzer, M., Cerosaletti, K. M., Chrzanowska, K. H., Saar, K., Beckmann, G., Seemanova, E., Cooper, P. R., Nowak, N. J., et al. (1998). "Nibrin, a novel DNA double-strand break repair protein, is mutated in Nijmegen breakage syndrome." Cell 93(3):467-476. PubMed

Vaupel, J. W., Manton, K. G., and Stallard, E. (1979). "The impact of heterogeneity in individual frailty on the dynamics of mortality." Demography 16(3):439-454. PubMed

Vaupel, J. W., Carey, J. R., Christensen, K., Johnson, T. E., Yashin, A. I., Holm, N. V., Iachine, I. A., Kannisto, V., Khazaeli, A. A., Liedo, P., et al. (1998). "Biodemographic trajectories of longevity." Science 280(5365):855-860. PubMed

Vaupel, J. W., Baudisch, A., Dolling, M., Roach, D. A., and Gampe, J. (2004). "The case for negative senescence." Theor Popul Biol 65(4):339-351. PubMed

Vaziri, H., and Benchimol, S. (1996). "From telomere loss to p53 induction and activation of a DNA-damage pathway at senescence: the telomere loss/DNA damage model of cell aging." Exp Gerontol 31(1-2):295-301. PubMed

Vaziri, H., West, M. D., Allsopp, R. C., Davison, T. S., Wu, Y. S., Arrowsmith, C. H., Poirier, G. G., and Benchimol, S. (1997). "ATM-dependent telomere loss in aging human diploid fibroblasts and DNA damage lead to the post-translational activation of p53 protein involving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase." Embo J 16(19):6018-6033. PubMed

Vermulst, M., Bielas, J. H., Kujoth, G. C., Ladiges, W. C., Rabinovitch, P. S., Prolla, T. A., and Loeb, L. A. (2007). "Mitochondrial point mutations do not limit the natural lifespan of mice." Nat Genet 39(4):540-543. PubMed

Vijg, J. (2000). "Somatic mutations and aging: a re-evaluation." Mutat Res 447(1):117-135. PubMed

Vijg, J., and Dolle, M. E. (2002). "Large genome rearrangements as a primary cause of aging." Mech Ageing Dev 123(8):907-915. PubMed

Villeda, S. A., Luo, J., Mosher, K. I., Zou, B., Britschgi, M., Bieri, G., Stan, T. M., Fainberg, N., Ding, Z., Eggel, A., et al. (2011). "The ageing systemic milieu negatively regulates neurogenesis and cognitive function." Nature 477(7362):90-94. PubMed

Viswanathan, M., and Guarente, L. (2011). "Regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan by sir-2.1 transgenes." Nature 477(7365):E1-2. PubMed

Vleck, C. M., Haussmann, M. F., and Vleck, D. (2003). "The natural history of telomeres: tools for aging animals and exploring the aging process." Exp Gerontol 38(7):791-795. PubMed

Vogel, E. W., and Zijlstra, J. A. (1987). "Somatic cell mutagenicity in Drosophila melanogaster in comparison with genetic damage in early germ-cell stages." Mutat Res 180(2):189-200. PubMed

Vogt, M., Haggblom, C., Yeargin, J., Christiansen-Weber, T., and Haas, M. (1998). "Independent induction of senescence by p16INK4a and p21CIP1 in spontaneously immortalized human fibroblasts." Cell Growth Differ 9(2):139-146. PubMed

Voituron, Y., de Fraipont, M., Issartel, J., Guillaume, O., and Clobert, J. (2011). "Extreme lifespan of the human fish (Proteus anguinus): a challenge for ageing mechanisms." Biol Lett 7(1):105-107. PubMed

von Zglinicki, T., Saretzki, G., Docke, W., and Lotze, C. (1995). "Mild hyperoxia shortens telomeres and inhibits proliferation of fibroblasts: a model for senescence?" Exp Cell Res 220(1):186-193. PubMed

von Zglinicki, T. (2000). "Role of oxidative stress in telomere length regulation and replicative senescence." Ann N Y Acad Sci 908:99-110. PubMed

Vreeland, R. H., Rosenzweig, W. D., and Powers, D. W. (2000). "Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal." Nature 407(6806):897-900. PubMed

Vulliamy, T., Marrone, A., Goldman, F., Dearlove, A., Bessler, M., Mason, P. J., and Dokal, I. (2001). "The RNA component of telomerase is mutated in autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita." Nature 413(6854):432-435. PubMed

Wahlestedt, M., Norddahl, G. L., Sten, G., Ugale, A., Frisk, M. A., Mattsson, R., Deierborg, T., Sigvardsson, M., and Bryder, D. (2013). "An epigenetic component of hematopoietic stem cell aging amenable to reprogramming into a young state." Blood 121(21):4257-4264. PubMed

Wakayama, T., Shinkai, Y., Tamashiro, K. L., Niida, H., Blanchard, D. C., Blanchard, R. J., Ogura, A., Tanemura, K., Tachibana, M., Perry, A. C., et al. (2000). "Cloning of mice to six generations." Nature 407(6802):318-319. PubMed

Wallace, D. C. (1992). "Mitochondrial genetics: a paradigm for aging and degenerative diseases?" Science 256(5057):628-632. PubMed

Wallace, D. C. (1999). "Mitochondrial diseases in man and mouse." Science 283(5407):1482-1488. PubMed

Walter, C. A., Lu, J., Bhakta, M., Zhou, Z. Q., Thompson, L. H., and McCarrey, J. R. (1994). "Testis and somatic Xrcc-1 DNA repair gene expression." Somat Cell Mol Genet 20(6):451-461. PubMed

Walter, C. A., Walter, R. B., and McCarrey, J. R. (2003). "Germline genomes--a biological fountain of youth?" Sci SAGE KE 2003(8):PE4. PubMed

Wang, S. M., Nishigori, C., Yagi, T., and Takebe, H. (1991). "Reduced DNA repair in progeria cells and effects of gamma-ray irradiation on UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in normal and progeria cells." Mutat Res 256(1):59-66. PubMed

Wang, X., Tsao, S. W., Wong, Y. C., and Cheung, A. L. (2003). "Induction of senescent-like growth arrest as a new target in anticancer treatment." Curr Cancer Drug Targets 3(2):153-159. PubMed

Wang, C., Jurk, D., Maddick, M., Nelson, G., Martin-Ruiz, C., and von Zglinicki, T. (2009). "DNA damage response and cellular senescence in tissues of aging mice." Aging Cell 8(3):311-323. PubMed

Wang, J., Geesman, G. J., Hostikka, S. L., Atallah, M., Blackwell, B., Lee, E., Cook, P. J., Pasaniuc, B., Shariat, G., Halperin, E., et al. (2011). "Inhibition of activated pericentromeric SINE/Alu repeat transcription in senescent human adult stem cells reinstates self-renewal." Cell Cycle 10(17):3016-3030. PubMed

Warner, H. R. (2001). "Support for basic gerontological research in the USA." Exp Gerontol 36(3):403-412. PubMed

Warner, H., Miller, R. A., and Carrington, J. (2002). "Meeting report--National Institute on Aging Workshop on the Comparative Biology of Aging." Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2002(17):pe5. PubMed

Warner, H. R. (2003). "Subfield history: use of model organisms in the search for human aging genes." Sci Aging Knowl Environ 2003(6):RE1. PubMed

Warner, H., Anderson, J., Austad, S., Bergamini, E., Bredesen, D., Butler, R., Carnes, B. A., Clark, B. F., Cristofalo, V., Faulkner, J., et al. (2005). "Science fact and the SENS agenda. What can we reasonably expect from ageing research?" EMBO Rep 6(11):1006-1008. PubMed

Warner, H. R. (2006). "Scientific and ethical concerns regarding engineering human longevity." Rejuvenation Res 9(4):440-442; discussion 443-445. PubMed

Waters, H., and Walford, R. L. (1970). "Latent period for outgrowth of human skin explants as a function of age." J Gerontol 25(4):381-383. PubMed

Watkinson, A. R., and White, J. (1985). "Some life-history consequences of modular construction in plants." Phil Trans Ro Soc 313:31-51.

Watson, J. D. (1972). "Origin of concatemeric T7 DNA." Nat New Biol 239(94):197-201. PubMed

Weeda, G., Donker, I., de Wit, J., Morreau, H., Janssens, R., Vissers, C. J., Nigg, A., van Steeg, H., Bootsma, D., and Hoeijmakers, J. H. (1997). "Disruption of mouse ERCC1 results in a novel repair syndrome with growth failure, nuclear abnormalities and senescence." Curr Biol 7(6):427-439. PubMed

Wei, W., and Sedivy, J. M. (1999). "Differentiation between senescence (M1) and crisis (M2) in human fibroblast cultures." Exp Cell Res 253(2):519-522. PubMed

Weindruch, R., Walford, R. L., Fligiel, S., and Guthrie, D. (1986). "The retardation of aging in mice by dietary restriction: longevity, cancer, immunity and lifetime energy intake." J Nutr 116(4):641-654. PubMed

Weindruch, R., and Walford, R. L. (1988). The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction. C. C. Thomas, Springfield.

Weindruch, R. (1996). "The retardation of aging by caloric restriction: studies in rodents and primates." Toxicol Pathol 24(6):742-745. PubMed

Weinert, B. T., and Timiras, P. S. (2003). "Invited review: Theories of aging." J Appl Physiol 95(4):1706-1716. PubMed

Weintraub, S. J., Prater, C. A., and Dean, D. C. (1992). "Retinoblastoma protein switches the E2F site from positive to negative element." Nature 358(6383):259-261. PubMed

Weismann, A. (1891). On Heredity. Claredon Press, Oxford.

Wellinger, R. J., Ethier, K., Labrecque, P., and Zakian, V. A. (1996). "Evidence for a new step in telomere maintenance." Cell 85(3):423-433. PubMed

Werness, B. A., Levine, A. J., and Howley, P. M. (1990). "Association of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 E6 proteins with p53." Science 248(4951):76-79. PubMed

White, R. J., Albin, M. S., Verdura, J., Takaoka, Y., Massopust, L. C., Wolin, L. R., Locke, G. E., Taslitz, N., and Yashon, D. (1996). "The isolation and transplantation of the brain. An historical perspective emphasizing the surgical solutions to the design of these classical models." Neurol Res 18(3):194-203. PubMed

Whitlock, G., Lewington, S., Sherliker, P., Clarke, R., Emberson, J., Halsey, J., Qizilbash, N., Collins, R., and Peto, R. (2009). "Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies." Lancet 373(9669):1083-1096. PubMed

Wiley, C. (2005). "Nanotechnology and molecular homeostasis." J Am Geriatr Soc 53(9 Suppl):S295-298. PubMed

Willcox, D. C., Willcox, B. J., Todoriki, H., Curb, J. D., and Suzuki, M. (2006). "Caloric restriction and human longevity: what can we learn from the Okinawans?" Biogerontology 7(3):173-177. PubMed

Williams, G. C. (1957). "Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence." Evolution 11:398-411.

Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A. E., McWhir, J., Kind, A. J., and Campbell, K. H. (1997). "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells." Nature 385(6619):810-813. PubMed

Wilson, D. L. (1994). "The analysis of survival (mortality) data: fitting Gompertz, Weibull, and logistic functions." Mech Ageing Dev 74(1-2):15-33. PubMed

Witte, A. V., Fobker, M., Gellner, R., Knecht, S., and Floel, A. (2009). "Caloric restriction improves memory in elderly humans." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(4):1255-1260. PubMed

Wodinsky, J. (1977). "Hormonal inhibition of feeding of death in octopus. Control by optic gland secretion." Science 198:948-951.

Wolf, N., Penn, P., Pendergrass, W., Van Remmen, H., Bartke, A., Rabinovitch, P., and Martin, G. M. (2005). "Age-related cataract progression in five mouse models for anti-oxidant protection or hormonal influence." Exp Eye Res 81(3):276-285. PubMed

Wolkow, C. A., Kimura, K. D., Lee, M. S., and Ruvkun, G. (2000). "Regulation of C. elegans life-span by insulinlike signaling in the nervous system." Science 290(5489):147-150. PubMed

Wong, H., and Riabowol, K. (1996). "Differential CDK-inhibitor gene expression in aging human diploid fibroblasts." Exp Gerontol 31(1-2):311-325. PubMed

Wong, A., Yang, J., Cavadini, P., Gellera, C., Lonnerdal, B., Taroni, F., and Cortopassi, G. (1999). "The Friedreich's ataxia mutation confers cellular sensitivity to oxidant stress which is rescued by chelators of iron and calcium and inhibitors of apoptosis." Hum Mol Genet 8(3):425-430. PubMed

Wong, K. K., Maser, R. S., Bachoo, R. M., Menon, J., Carrasco, D. R., Gu, Y., Alt, F. W., and DePinho, R. A. (2003). "Telomere dysfunction and Atm deficiency compromises organ homeostasis and accelerates ageing." Nature 421(6923):643-648. PubMed

Wong, E., and Cuervo, A. M. (2010). "Autophagy gone awry in neurodegenerative diseases." Nat Neurosci 13(7):805-811. PubMed

Wood, J. G., Rogina, B., Lavu, S., Howitz, K., Helfand, S. L., Tatar, M., and Sinclair, D. (2004). "Sirtuin activators mimic caloric restriction and delay ageing in metazoans." Nature 430(7000):686-689. PubMed

Wright, W. E., and Hayflick, L. (1975). "Nuclear control of cellular aging demonstrated by hybridization of anucleate and whole cultured normal human fibroblasts." Exp Cell Res 96(1):113-121. PubMed

Wright, W. E., and Shay, J. W. (2001). "Cellular senescence as a tumor-protection mechanism: the essential role of counting." Curr Opin Genet Dev 11(1):98-103. PubMed

Wyllie, F. S., Jones, C. J., Skinner, J. W., Haughton, M. F., Wallis, C., Wynford-Thomas, D., Faragher, R. G., and Kipling, D. (2000). "Telomerase prevents the accelerated cell ageing of Werner syndrome fibroblasts." Nat Genet 24(1):16-17. PubMed

Wynford-Thomas, D. (1999). "Cellular senescence and cancer." J Pathol 187(1):100-111. PubMed

Yang, J. H., Lee, H. C., Lin, K. J., and Wei, Y. H. (1994). "A specific 4977-bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA in human ageing skin." Arch Dermatol Res 286(7):386-390. PubMed

Yang, X., and Tian, X. C. (2000). "Cloning adult animals - what is the genetic age of the clones?" Cloning 2(3):123-128. PubMed

Yang, H., Baur, J. A., Chen, A., Miller, C., and Sinclair, D. A. (2007). "Design and synthesis of compounds that extend yeast replicative lifespan." Aging Cell 6(1):35-43. PubMed

Yawata, T., Kamino, H., Kugoh, H., Katoh, M., Nomura, N., Oishi, M., Horikawa, I., Barrett, J. C., and Oshimura, M. (2003). "Identification of a </= 600-kb region on human chromosome 1q42.3 inducing cellular senescence." Oncogene 22(2):281-290. PubMed

Young, L. E., Fernandes, K., McEvoy, T. G., Butterwith, S. C., Gutierrez, C. G., Carolan, C., Broadbent, P. J., Robinson, J. J., Wilmut, I., and Sinclair, K. D. (2001). "Epigenetic change in IGF2R is associated with fetal overgrowth after sheep embryo culture." Nat Genet 27(2):153-154. PubMed

Yu, G. L., Bradley, J. D., Attardi, L. D., and Blackburn, E. H. (1990). "In vivo alteration of telomere sequences and senescence caused by mutated Tetrahymena telomerase RNAs." Nature 344(6262):126-132. PubMed

Yu, C. E., Oshima, J., Fu, Y. H., Wijsman, E. M., Hisama, F., Alisch, R., Matthews, S., Nakura, J., Miki, T., Ouais, S., et al. (1996). "Positional cloning of the Werner's syndrome gene." Science 272(5259):258-262. PubMed

Yu, C. E., Oshima, J., Wijsman, E. M., Nakura, J., Miki, T., Piussan, C., Matthews, S., Fu, Y. H., Mulligan, J., Martin, G. M., et al. (1997). "Mutations in the consensus helicase domains of the Werner syndrome gene. Werner's Syndrome Collaborative Group." Am J Hum Genet 60(2):330-341. PubMed

Yu, C., Li, Y., Holmes, A., Szafranski, K., Faulkes, C. G., Coen, C. W., Buffenstein, R., Platzer, M., de Magalhaes, J. P., and Church, G. M. (2011). "RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice." PLoS One 6(11):e26729. PubMed

Yuan, H., Kaneko, T., and Matsuo, M. (1996). "Increased susceptibility of late passage human diploid fibroblasts to oxidative stress." Exp Gerontol 31(4):465-474. PubMed

Zahavi, A. (1975). "Mate selection-a selection for a handicap." J Theor Biol 53(1):205-214. PubMed

Zahn, J. M., Poosala, S., Owen, A. B., Ingram, D. K., Lustig, A., Carter, A., Weeraratna, A. T., Taub, D. D., Gorospe, M., Mazan-Mamczarz, K., et al. (2007). "AGEMAP: a gene expression database for aging in mice." PLoS Genet 3(11):e201. PubMed

Zec, R. F. (1995). "The neuropsychology of aging." Exp Gerontol 30(3-4):431-442. PubMed

Zhang, C., and Cuervo, A. M. (2008). "Restoration of chaperone-mediated autophagy in aging liver improves cellular maintenance and hepatic function." Nat Med 14(9):959-965. PubMed

Zhang, G., Li, J., Purkayastha, S., Tang, Y., Zhang, H., Yin, Y., Li, B., Liu, G., and Cai, D. (2013). "Hypothalamic programming of systemic ageing involving IKK-beta, NF-kappaB and GnRH." Nature 497(7448):211-216. PubMed

Zhao, Z. Y., Xie, Y., Fu, Y. R., Bogdan, A., and Touitou, Y. (2002). "Aging and the circadian rhythm of melatonin: a cross-sectional study of Chinese subjects 30-110 yr of age." Chronobiol Int 19(6):1171-1182. PubMed

Zhou, Z. Q., Manguino, D., Kewitt, K., Intano, G. W., McMahan, C. A., Herbert, D. C., Hanes, M., Reddick, R., Ikeno, Y., and Walter, C. A. (2001). "Spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma is reduced in transgenic mice overexpressing human O6- methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(22):12566-12571. PubMed

Zhou, J., Liu, J., Cheng, C. J., Patel, T. R., Weller, C. E., Piepmeier, J. M., Jiang, Z., and Saltzman, W. M. (2011). "Biodegradable poly(amine-co-ester) terpolymers for targeted gene delivery." Nat Mater 11(1):82-90. PubMed

Zhu, J., Wang, H., Bishop, J. M., and Blackburn, E. H. (1999). "Telomerase extends the lifespan of virus-transformed human cells without net telomere lengthening." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(7):3723-3728. PubMed

Zimmermann, S., Voss, M., Kaiser, S., Kapp, U., Waller, C. F., and Martens, U. M. (2003). "Lack of telomerase activity in human mesenchymal stem cells." Leukemia 17(6):1146-1149. PubMed

Ziuganov, V. V. (2005). "A long-lived parasite extending the host life span: the pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera elongates host life by turns out the program of accelerated senescence in salmon Salmo salar." Dokl Biol Sci 403:291-294. PubMed

Zuk, M. (2009). "The sicker sex." PLoS Pathog 5(1):e1000267. PubMed

Zwaan, B. J. (2003). "Linking development and aging." Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2003(47):pe32. PubMed


Up to the Global Sphere

Back to senescence.info

Thank you for visiting my website. Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions, ideas, comments or suggestions.

Copyright © 1997 - 2002, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2012, 2013 by João Pedro de Magalhães. All rights reserved.